She demanded only outward obedience, unwilling to force consciences. Elizabeth went to live with Henry’s widow, Catherine Parr. Elizabeth spent just two months in the Tower of London, but she had no idea that her stay would be so brief – and it did not feel particularly brief. But Catherine was thirty years younger than Henry and soon enough resumed an affair with a former lover. It was to Henry’s (small) credit that he always acknowledged Elizabeth as his own, and took pride in her intellectual accomplishments. And she held that favor far longer than any had expected. Their mutual faith was an important connection with the increasingly devout Edward. But before 1558, she took care to dress soberly, the image of chastity and modesty. However, he did so without the backing of Parliament and his will was patently illegal, as well as unpopular. Lord Burleigh (then William Cecil) encouraged military, while Elizabeth, fearful of action as always, hesitated. Certainly it placed great strain on Katharine Parr, who had become pregnant soon after her marriage. It was Henry’s sixth and final wife, Katharine Parr, who had the greatest impact upon Elizabeth’s life. After Anne died and Elizabeth, too, was declared illegitimate, Mary found other reasons to hate Elizabeth, chief among them religion. The mere mention of the Tower was enough to shatter her already fragile nerves. During her brother Edward’s reign, she lived the life of a wealthy and privileged lady – and apparently enjoyed it immensely. The contrast between their physical appearances could not have been more striking. During her 45-year reign, England’s Elizabeth I carefully cultivated her public image. Of course, the question arises – Elizabeth was Protestant, so why not put her on the throne instead of Jane? Suffice to say, he was overthrown and executed and Mary Tudor, at the age of thirty-seven, was declared queen of England in her own right. It was rumored that Philip watched the sisters from behind a curtain; whether or not he was there, Mary was content to make peace of sorts. But Elizabeth had other ideas. He was handsome, charming, and very ambitious. Most infamously, a former favorite, the Earl of Essex, led a poorly-plotted rebellion against the queen in 1601. She concocted a mix of arsenic and other drugs; they worked, at least for Dudley’s purpose. It was simply impossible for Mary to forget the past, etched so acutely upon her spirit. She was small like her mother and thin, with Katharine’s deep, almost gruff voice. But she was sadly mistaken. He had already bought the wardship of Lady Jane Grey, a Tudor cousin and heir in Henry VIII’s will. For Mary, who was perhaps the most personally kind and gentle of the Tudor rulers, the killings were necessary to save the heretics’ souls as well. She encouraged this perception, which was as accurate as any, by dressing with a degree of severity virtually absent at the Tudor royal court. But she was never openly passionate about religion, recognizing its divisive role in English politics. Her sense of duty was admirable, though it came at great personal cost. She could not like Elizabeth, nor trust her. No one believed Elizabeth to be more than the illegitimate daughter of the king. Now, Tyrwhit told the princess, confess all; he wanted confirmation of the charge that Seymour and Elizabeth planned to wed. Dudley recognized Elizabeth’s formidable intelligence. Conscious of her sisterly duty, Mary set out for Greenwich from Hunsdon the day before Edward died. The execution of Mary Stuart convinced Philip in Spain that it was time to conquer England and restore Catholicism within the country. When Edward VI became ill in 1553 and it was clear he would not survive, Dudley had a desperate plan to save himself from Mary I’s Catholic rule – place Henry VIII’s niece, Lady Jane Grey on the throne. He replied to her that, God willing, she would soon wear a heavier crown. A major factor in Elizabeth I’s reign becoming known as England’s … She had matured into a tall, slender and striking girl, with a fair, unblemished complexion and the famous Tudor red hair. Mary’s council could find no real proof that de Noailles’s suppositions were true but they decided to summon Elizabeth back to London for questioning. But it was to be another three years before she would become queen of England. Likewise, Katharine Parr was devoted to the reformed faith. But Renard wanted both Jane and her husband executed. Mary, at thirty-seven, was old beyond her years. She was understandably frightened and ill; she sent word that she could not travel. In 1568, Mary fled Scotland after her marriage to Lord Darnley ended in murder and a suspicious remarriage, and she begged for Elizabeth's help to be restored to power. They did not meet immediately. From Richmond, Bedingfield took his cowed charge to Woodstock, a hunting-lodge miles from London and once favored by her Plantagenet grandfather, Edward IV. Their mental powers were considered to be inferior to men. She may have been warned of his intentions – more likely she guessed them. In poetry, she has been celebrated as an English embodiment of feminine strength associated with such mythic heroines as Judith, Esther, Diana, Astraea, Gloriana, and Minerva. Philip represented the homeland of her beloved mother, and a chance to bring all the weight of the Holy Roman Empire to bear upon the heretics of England. ‘Oh Lord,’ she said loudly, ‘I never thought to have come in here as a prisoner, and I pray you all bear me witness that I come in as no traitor but as true a woman to the Queen’s Majesty as any as is now living.’ Several of the warders stepped forward and bowed before her, and one called out, ‘God preserve your Grace.’. Much of Elizabeth’s reign was a careful balancing act between both factions of her own court as well as with other nations. It was a stalemate. She soon developed the habit of rising early; when he appeared, her nose was safely in a book. The queen was reportedly pregnant and she and Philip would open Parliament together on 12 November. Jane was already safely wed to an Englishman. Elizabeth I - Elizabeth I - Accession: At the death of Mary on November 17, 1558, Elizabeth came to the throne amid bells, bonfires, patriotic demonstrations, and other signs of public jubilation. The queen died on 4 September 1548 of childbed fever. Queen Elizabeth I – Tudor Queen Elizabeth Tudor is considered by many to be the greatest monarch in English history. She was also an heir to the English throne, though still officially recognized as a bastard. The Primary Sources section of this site contains an excerpt from Edward VI’s journal in which he records a religious argument with Mary. To this end, he had engaged a female ‘witch’ to help prolong the king’s life. Perhaps the most damning charge was his planned marriage to Elizabeth. After all, she and Jane had lived and studied together briefly under Katharine Parr’s tutelage, and Jane’s admiration of Elizabeth had been open and obvious. Elizabeth Tudor was born on 7 September 1533 in Greenwich Palace. It is probable that she developed a tumor in her stomach which, combined with the lack of a cycle and her own fervent prayers, made her believe she was pregnant. And since Mary was thirty-seven, quite old to have a child, Elizabeth was viewed as her probable heir. Elizabeth had always been active, both physically and mentally. This was often followed by the explanatory ‘the king’s daughter.’ It was an awkward situation which the king saw no reason to resolve. Elizabeth quickly assembled a Privy Council and promoted a number of key advisors: One, William Cecil (later Lord Burghley), was appointed principal secretary. Elizabeth refused to allow their examination; she preferred to commit her body to God rather than to the eyes of strangers, she told Bedingfield. It was Elizabeth who dressed plainly, most often in severely cut black or white gowns. Gardiner asked. Consistently poor harvests and high inflation damaged both the economic situation and belief in the queen, as did anger at the alleged greed of court favorites. In her greatest speech to Parliament, she told them, ‘I count the glory of my crown that I have reigned with your love.’ And five centuries later, the worldwide love affair with Elizabeth Tudor continues. He knew, too, that the Protestant faith was still popular in the country, and that Elizabeth embodied its greatest hope. The presence of her strong and balanced rule facilitated this. She left the Seymour home for Hatfield House in May 1548, ostensibly because the queen was ‘undoubtful of health’. Edward VI’s council had left the economy in shambles; currency was debased and near worthless. With her death, the king’s Catholic critics considered him a widower, free to marry again. Their partnership would prove to be fruitful and he remained in her service for 40 years. Helen Hackett: We first thought that 1593 would be a good focal point to think about representations of Elizabeth as an aging woman.The more we looked into it, we realised that it’s an incredibly eventful year. Edward VI’s decision should not indicate any great dislike of Elizabeth. She impresses people even today and her name has become synonymous with strong women. Then, if Mary died without bearing a child, England would remain within the Hapsburg sphere of influence, a willing and useful adjunct of the empire. It was Dudley who pointed out the logical inconsistency – that Mary ‘could not be put by unless the Lady Elizabeth were put by also.’. Although Elizabeth resisted calls to accuse and execute Mary at first, ultimately, she was persuaded by evidence that Mary had been party to the plots, not just an unwilling figurehead. Three of the queen’s councilors – Howard, Hastings, and Cornwallis, all of whom were friendly with Elizabeth – escorted her back to London. Her reign was marked by immense growth for England, especially in world power and cultural influence. But she had always suffered from digestive and menstrual troubles. During the first weeks of her imprisonment, she was allowed to take exercise along the Tower walls but when a small child began to give her flowers and other gifts, Brydges was told to keep her indoors. However, all of Europe and most Englishmen considered Mary to be Henry’s legitimate heir, despite legislation to the contrary. And then, around 10 o’clock one evening, a message arrived that the queen would see her. Prices rose and discontent spread. Most of the English population hoped that marriage would solve the problem of a woman ruling. The queen was not pleased. These were intercepted as well. Known as The Virgin Queen, Elizabeth the First was one of England’s most notorious queens. It was rumored that Dudley had sent councilors to her, offering a large bribe if she would just renounce her claim to the throne. Since Mary was a Catholic, and Dudley a Protestant who had benefited materially from the Reformation, he was necessarily more friendly to Elizabeth. The queen’s bedroom was lit with flickering candlelight; the queen herself was half-hidden in shadow. An adulthood passed in anxiety and tribulation had marred her health and appearance. She believed he was sent to secretly murder her for, not long before, a credible rumor had reached her; it was said that the Catholic elements of Mary’s council had sent a warrant for her execution to the Tower but that Sir John Brydges, the strict but honest Lieutenant, had not acted upon it because it lacked the queen’s signature. Elizabeth went to live with the Queen Dowager Katherine, but left her household after an incident with the Lord Admir… With Helen Mirren, Hugh Dancy, Toby Jones, Patrick Malahide. It was being whispered that Dudley had poisoned the king to place his daughter-in-law on the throne. And there was soon much reason for discontent. She studied theology and supported the Protestant cause; she had been raised to do so and knew only Protestants recognized her parents’ marriage. Accordingly, Philip wrote to Mary and advised that Elizabeth be set at liberty. After the warder’s declaration, she sat upon a stone and would not move. When Parr became pregnant in 1548, she sent Elizabeth away to set up her own household, following incidents of her husband, Thomas Seymour, apparently attempting to groom or seduce Elizabeth. He was executed on 20 March 1549, dying ‘very dangerously, irksomely, horribly… a wicked man and the realm is well rid of him.’ Contrary to some biographies, Elizabeth did not say, ‘This day died a man with much wit, and very little judgment.’ The 17th century Italian novelist Leti invented this, as well as several forged letters long supposed to be hers. With Bedingfield’s arrival, Elizabeth lost her almost preternatural self-control and she asked her guards ‘whether the Lady Jane’s scaffold was taken away or no?’ When told it was gone, she asked about Bedingfield, and if ‘her murdering were secretly committed to his charge, he would see the execution thereof?’. The queen originally participated in Seymour’s early morning raids into Elizabeth’s room, where he would tickle and wrestle with the girl in her nightdress. Heart Climb Thy. There, Elizabeth dismounted and knelt in the road before her sister. Mary and Elizabeth, first cousins and Queens of their respective countries, had a rocky relationship that dominated English-Scottish politics for 20 years. Her request was refused. He was the first non-royal Englishman given that title. She then wrote her brother a number of letters, inquiring about his health and asking permission to come to Court. It was only after she miscarried twice that Henry began to consider this second marriage as cursed as the first. Queen Elizabeth I (1533 – 1603) ruled over England and Ireland for a period of 44 years and 127 days, making her the ninth longest reigning British monarch. They had not seen each other for about five years. By the time she had reached her teens, Elizabeth knew Latin, Greek, French, and Italian. The rumors were hardly comforting. Throughout her reign, she proved to be a capable politician and she reigned for almost half a century. Elizabeth was born to Henry VIII of England and Anne Boleyn. Immediately, Dudley had Jane Grey proclaimed queen, an honor she had not sought and did not want. The details were undoubtedly embarrassing but she recognized their harmlessness. However, if both mother and child died, then Elizabeth once again assumed prominence. Biography of Queen Elizabeth I, England's Virgin Queen, Women Rulers of England and Great Britain, The Tudors: Introduction to a Royal Dynasty, Biography of Lady Jane Grey, the Nine Day Queen, Medieval Queens, Empresses, and Women Rulers, 1952: Princess Elizabeth Becomes Queen at 25, Biography of Catherine Parr, Sixth Wife of Henry VIII, Industry and Agriculture History in Europe, Mary, Queen of Scots and Catholic Intrigue, M.A., Medieval Studies, Sheffield University, B.A., Medieval Studies, Sheffield University. Elizabeth went to Tilbury Camp to encourage her troops, declaring: In the end, England defeated the Armada and Elizabeth was victorious. They decided to wait until the next morning, Palm Sunday, when the streets would be nearly deserted since everyone would be in church. He also passed the patents to her lands, which allowed her more income. There was a series of bad harvests. When Mary fled her country in the 1560s, she was taken into house arrest in England, where she had expected the protection of her cousin Elizabeth. When word reached her that Mary was finally queen, she sent a letter of congratulation to her sister and set off for London. She was once again accorded a place of honor amongst the English ladies, though not the highest position as was her due. Mary was the focus of plots to kill Elizabeth during the 1580s. Elizabeth again told him she would rather be unjustly imprisoned than gain freedom with lies. Film: "The Virgin Queen" (1955) Bette Davis reclaims her role as Queen Elizabeth in the 1955 film, … Elizabeth was lavish in her presentation, part of her brilliantly orchestrated campaign to mold her image and retain power. She fashioned herself and her kingdom into a major world power by believing in the qualities of the men who surrounded her, exploiting their weaknesses and admiring their strengths. For Elizabeth, these events were merely background noise at first. Edward’s ministers, especially after the Seymour affair, were careful with her. Elizabeth I, bynames the Virgin Queen and Good Queen Bess, (born September 7, 1533, Greenwich, near London, England—died March 24, 1603, Richmond, Surrey), queen of England (1558–1603) during a period, often called the Elizabethan Age, when England asserted itself vigorously as a major European power in politics, commerce, and the arts. Unlike their half-sister Mary, both Edward and Elizabeth were raised Protestant during its most formative years. Immediately, the council sent Sir Robert Tyrwhit to Hatfield with the mission to take control of Elizabeth’s household and gain her confession. Elizabeth survived threat of execution during the reign of her half sister. She was a patron of the arts. It was perhaps clear to him that Mary was seriously ill and would never have children. After his death in 1533, Mary succeeded to the throne and Elizabeth joined her triumphant procession. He knew the English were acutely sensitive to any shift in Mary’s policies simply because she had chosen to marry a foreigner. Edward Spenser and William Shakespeare were both supported by the queen and likely drew inspiration from their regal leader. With no evidence found against her, and Queen Mary’s husband viewing her as an asset for a political marriage, Elizabeth avoided execution and was released. She could not be received at court, but she could not be set at liberty in the countryside. He knew that if he imprisoned the two princesses, they would be unable to rouse popular support against his plan. Mary’s mood was fickle regarding her clever half-sister. She wore each color to great effect. But Dr Owen was busy tending to Queen Mary and told Bedingfield that his charge must be patient. Typically for Henry, he simply let both his daughters live as princesses and gave them precedence over everyone at court except his current wife. The last miscarriage occurred in January 1536; Katharine died that same month. The American state of Virginia, which was founded by Sir Walter Raleigh, one of Elizabeth’s favorite courtiers, was in fact named after her, the Virgin Queen. But while Katharine considered this simple fun, her husband was more serious. This is also called the "Bisley Boy" theory. She told Gardiner she would rather remain in prison forever than admit to crimes she had never committed. Like her mother, Mary was a devout Catholic; she recognized Elizabeth’s lack of religious zeal. Still, Elizabeth fought against signing the execution warrant until the bitter end, going so far as to encourage private assassination. Her only hope, they counseled, was to marry quickly and lean upon her husband for support. Parliament had already agreed that if Mary died in childbirth, Philip would be regent of England during their child’s minority. Stuart’s execution also meant that he would not have to put an ally of France on the throne. In her reign she faced three main wars. In truth, the roughly 300 people killed (about 60 women) was not considered excessive by Mary’s European contemporaries; and in the government’s mind, Protestantism had become dangerously linked with treason, sedition, and other secular crimes. Mary’s heartache was soon worsened by the impending departure of Philip. Elizabeth would be leaving Whitehall as well, though at first the council could not decide where to send her. Elizabeth was sent to a small manor house a few miles from Oatlands where she played another waiting game, only this time with some measure of freedom and hope. There she continued her studies and attempted to remain safe in the morass of English politics. He also left them the substantial income of 3000 pds a year, the same amount for each daughter. Dudley attempted to place Mary and Elizabeth in his power while Edward was dying. Throughout her life, Elizabeth had a variety of suitors. Ironically enough, it was the impending arrival of Philip of Spain which led to her freedom. He allowed the feuding brothers to destroy each other. Indeed, she drove Tyrwhit to exasperation; ‘in no way will she confess any practice by Mistress Ashley or the cofferer concerning my lord Admiral; and yet I do see it in her face that she is guilty and do perceive as yet she will abide more storms ere she accuse Mistress Ashley,’ he wrote to Somerset, ‘I do assure your Grace she hath a very good wit and nothing is gotten of her but by great policy.’ Elizabeth refused to scapegoat her loyal servants and defiantly asserted her complete innocence. She was destined to be the focal point for all discontent over Mary’s reign. Such was her profound effect on the nation. Elizabeth could be as ruthless … The next day, Gardiner told Elizabeth that the queen marveled that ‘she would so stoutly use herself, not confessing that she had offended’. They were never particularly close though he treated her with affection on her few visits to his court. After a few weeks, her initial fear of Bedingfield had settled into a bemused appraisal of her jailer. Henry already ignored Mary and Katharine’s constant pleas to meet; now he began a more aggressive campaign to secure Anne and Elizabeth’s position. England’s Protestant religion put it at odds with neighboring Catholic Spain and, to a lesser extent, France. Like Elizabeth, Mary had her illegitimacy established by an act of Parliament during Henry VIII’s reign. It was only when she reached adulthood and became queen that its psychological effects were revealed. And so Bedingfield was essentially her jailer, but not referred to as such; and Woodstock was her prison, but also not called such. Elizabeth's parents married after her father broke with Rome and divorced his first wife Catherine of Aragon. As a result, Elizabeth was educated as well as any legitimate prince, and she displayed a genuine love and aptitude for her studies. Elizabeth was now separated from her brother’s household, moving to Katharine Parr’s home in Chelsea. The coasts of North and South America were first explored during her reign, with the first colonies being set up in the so-called “New World”. In the third week of April 1555, almost a year since she was sent to Woodstock, Elizabeth was brought to Hampton Court Palace. Under the 1536 ‘Second Act of Succession’, which declared both her and the 19 year old Mary illegitimate, Parliament gave Henry the ability to determine his children’s status, as well as the actual succession. Gardiner replied that if she wanted her liberty and former position, she must tell a different story; only by admitting her past faults, confessing all sins, could she hope for forgiveness. But he also had a tendency toward religious asceticism which worsened as he grew older. The government was able to suppress the rebellion before it spread very far and Wyatt was arrested. On 29 July, she entered the capital with 2000 mounted men wearing the green and white Tudor colors. Understandably, her subjects were less than thrilled. Poor Tyrwhit left for London with no damaging confession. The handsome, fair-haired 27 year old King was already a widow with a male heir; his first wife Maria of Portugal had died in childbirth in 1545 after two years of a marriage. If she were harmed in any way, his arrival in England would be even more unpopular and dangerous. , likely due to her that Mary was one of political necessity and Philip be. 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