Our Hedgerow Guide aims to help you forage for British plants that are relatively common in the wild, easy to find and good to eat – and to avoid those that are inedible or poisonous. B ritain has many beautiful wild flowers. Dog’s mercury, Mercurialis perennis As with many wild food plants, the common mallow has also had a long history of medicinal use. Weeds are wild plants in the wrong place. Pay particular attention to parks, waste ground and walls, and don’t forget to check the pavement cracks too. How people can help Our gardens are a vital resource for wildlife, providing corridors of green space between open countryside, allowing species to move about. The flower is very delicate and pale blue has dark veins on the lower petal. Powerpoint has mixture of wild and cultivated plants, enabling you to discuss what this means. Caterpillars of the Heath Fritillary butterfly, one of our rarest butterflies, feed on this wild plant. Flowers May-September. It is by no means all the wild flowers that we have in the UK, as in the 'Complete British Wild Flowers' book, by Collins, at the bottom of this page lists over 1100 species of British Wild Flower. Germander speedwell (Veronica chamaedrys). BOOKS; COURSES; PLANTS A-Z; PODCAST; WHAT’S IN SEASON; SUBSCRIBE; Plants. Look to the woodland floor for a flush of purple and you might see fritillary butterflies feeding and laying their eggs. floribundus; Chalk milkwort – Polygala calcarea; Charlock – Sinapis arvensis; Cherry – Prunus spp. Every Flower Counts. Some plants use small mammals and birds, others use wind and water to help scatter seeds. The five plants in this article are easily identifiable, widely distributed, relatively common, easily processed, between them represent available food year-round and provide a very favourable return on energy invested. In its wild form, this valuable shade lover carries white, five-petaled spring flowers against prettily divided dark green foliage; its rhizomes spread steadily. 4. NHBS GmbH, Registergericht Amstgericht Bonn, Umsatzsteuer-ID DE326630061. If you’d like to discover even more edible wild plants, we suggest checking out the SAS Survival Handbook and the U.S. Army Survival Manual. Some pond plants may be beneficial to local or migratory... Read More → This is a new part of our site and the wild flowers / plants described here will 'grow' with time (see the list on the right); it is, however, a 'work in progress'. Flowers April-October. Allium ochotense, edible wild plants, Hokkaido Japan.jpg 650 × 432; 43 KB. Pages in category "Edible wild plants" This category contains only the following page. Purple flowers with lighter stripes on petals. Hundreds of different wild flowers can be found when walking along the coast path and during the course of our guided walking holidays we get the chance to observe many flowers throughout the season.. Below you will find some of the varieties of wild flowers that we have photographed as we travel along. They are a common sight in woods, as many species are shade tolerant and can grow year round, bringing some welcome green to cooler months. Patrick Allan . This list features nine species commonly found in the countryside and wooded areas. Lush, ancient and primitive, ferns are magnificent non-flowering plants that reproduce via spores. Alexanders Read. Habitats. He has published numerous foraging guide books.. Edible wild plants are all around us, growing anywhere from the cracks of a city sidewalk to the hillsides of a mountain forest. Learning & Volunteering. These British Native Plants are all grown in UK at our nursery in Leicestershire. White flowers radiate out from the stem on spokes. I have created this UK wild food foraging guide to help you rediscover our forgotten plant heritage. 3. #143162, Collins Wild Flower Guide: The Most Complete Guide to the Wild Flowers of Britain and Ireland A straggly plant with ivy-like leaves and small lilac flowers with a yellow spot. Abundant in short grass such as parks and garden lawns. Menu. Level of expertise needed Beginner. WaxcApp Survey. times, RHS Registered Charity no. Relatively few people can identify bittersweet nightshade on their property. Common Cow-wheat is semi-parasitic as it attaches to the roots of other plants in order to feed. It’s a hardy plant which is popular with pollinators and grows just about anywhere. The Wild Flower Key: How to Identify Wild Flowers, Trees and Shrubs in Britain and Ireland 1. Join the RHS today and support our charitable work, Keep track of your plants with reminders & care tips – all to help you grow successfully, For the latest on RHS Shows in 2020 and 2021, read more, RHS members get free access to RHS Gardens, Free entry to RHS members at selected times », Reduced prices on RHS Garden courses and workshops, Our Garden Centres and online shops are packed with unique and thoughtful gifts and decorations to make your Christmas sparkle, General enquiries #198409. Often found in dense stands. Yellow flowers on long stalks and glossy heart-shaped leaves. Low growing and sprawling. Our wild flower plug plants are growing from UK native seed andare available to buy as individual species or in beautiful collections. Likes hedgerows and woodland clearings. Patience and persistence are helpful too. Trees woods and wildlife . 6. On other specimens, the … Below we’ve given a primer on 19 common edible wild plants. Common in hedges and verges as well as in woodland. Picture comes up alone so you can ask children if they can identify it then click and name comes up. Mon – Fri | 9am – 5pm, Join the RHS today and support our charity. The criterion for "wild flower" is that it hasn't been planted. They eat a wide range of foods such as fungi, tree bark and some types of seeds. The book Hedgerow Medicine gives clear instructions on using 50 common medicinal plants, with details on harvesting and recipes for making your own teas, tinctures, glycerites, poultices, oxymels, ointments and other preparations. Germander speedwell – Veronica chamaedrys About British Wild Flower Plants. Knowledge and Understanding Statutory Requirements. Knowledge that was once common to everyone. KS1 Science Plants learning resources for adults, children, parents and teachers. From a survival perspective, they should be at the top of your list of plants to learn. Feverfew – Tanacetum parthenium Just click on any of the A to Z letters for a list showing the up-to-date list of plants beginning with that letter. To learn how to use wild plants as food and medicine. The English countryside is typified by rolling hills and a beautiful random patchwork appearance produced by small agricultural fields delineated by thick hedgerows. Please note that this book is currently out of print – however, second-hand books may be available online. Dandelions lead a double life, being both a persistent weed and good wildlife plant Equipment. We are the largest grower of British native plants in the UK and have been in operation since 1986. English Lavender plants are a beautiful, fragrant evergreen shrub. Harrap’s Wild Flowers: A Field Guide to the Wild Flowers of Britain & Ireland #245027 . As its name suggests, deadly nightshade is another poisonous plant. 9. 5. Yellow pimpernel – Lysimachia nemorum 100209 pata de paloma.JPG 1,031 × 869; 344 KB. In appropriate conditions, the wild primrose can cover the ground in open woods and shaded hedgerows. For the new science curriculum - identifying common plants and trees. It has other common names like Joseph and Mary, Soldiers and Sailors - all the type of name indicating a plant the flowers of which change colour. A plant of many colours, although most commonly dark-blue (it can also be purple, pink and white). Here you will find nine of the most common species that you’re likely to encounter in urban areas. It can be found on roadside verges, along footpaths and on waste ground. Flowers February-May. Over half the British and Irish flora is introduced but … Bugle – Ajuga reptans ... Plants are extremely hardy and trouble-free, and are ideal for growing in a variety of situations including containers, sunny spring borders and in wildflower meadows or areas of long grass. See if your child can get ten out of ten. You can tell it apart from its close relative the heath milkwort by its leaves: common milkwort leaves alternate up the stem while heath milkwort's are opposite each other. If you have an idea of the plant name (common or scientific), enter this in the search box (top-right). Learn About Common Edible Plants In the Wild with This Visual Guide. Edible parts: You can eat the flowers and seeds of this edible wild plant. You can find 1,581 photos of British Isles wild plants including many native rarities on the site. Home; Resources; Y1; Y2; Y3; Y4; Y5; Y6; Buy; Login; KS1 - Year 1 - Plants. All plants are sent out established in their baskets (oxygenating plants excepted) to speed the transfer to your pond and its wildlife habitat. Thorny shrub with white or pale pink flowers. Silverweed – Potentilla anserina ok so im gonna be honest… this site needs to prehaps not be so vage in the info it gives… i mean there are loads of british plants (both wild and cultivated) and this site seems to be amed at thous who realy dont know anything about plants and are just starting to become awear …. Plants use different methods to spread their seeds. Ash Read. A lot of people view birdwatching as a hobby that requires far too much effort for too little reward. 222879/SC038262. English Lavender hedge plants are commonly referred to by its Latin name, Lavandula anguistifolia ‘Munstead’. #245027, Guide to Flowers of Walks and Waysides Common mallow can be found growing erect or prostrate, which may initially cause confusion because it's easy to assume they might be two different species.Mallow's kidney-shaped or palmately-lobed leaves are notably creased, typically with dentate margins. Easy to recognise due to the silver-white underside of leaves. Common in grass and roadside verges. Likes damp ground such as roadside ditches and wet woodland. survival camping outdoors food food hacks infographics. Burdock Read. Wildflower plugs are easy to grow and can create a stunning display while providing food and habitat for bees, butterflies and other pollinators. Identifying plants. The common name is primrose, or occasionally common primrose or English primrose. Collins Wild Flower Guide: The Most Complete Guide to the Wild Flowers of Britain and Ireland #225655 . Flowers late April-June. Likes slightly damp soil in woods, fields and churchyards. Brooklime Read. 2. Skip to content. 8. 7. Common in damp deciduous woodland and other shady places as well as unmanaged grassland. It settles itself neatly around stouter perennials, and under or around deciduous shrubs and trees. It is often confused with American bittersweet and Oriental bittersweet plants. Annual weeds produce lots of seeds; hoe them off before they flower. Cleavers Read. Produces tall spires of purplish flowers. or Umbellularia spp. Very abundant on waste ground as well as on heaths and in hedgerows and woodland. 1. Wayside Medicine follows on with another 50 wild plants, common but mostly less well known. The leaflets usually have a pale chevron shape near the base. With the kind permission of the B.S.B.I the downloadable BSBI2007 list has been used as the basis of these pages. Hedgerow plants and flowers guide: history and how to identify common species. The more ribald names refer to the spadix and hood bearing some resemblance to male and female genitalia. Five-petalled pink/red flowers on long stems with opposite leaves. Wild Fennel prefers drier conditions and grows everywhere from fields to roadsides but usually within a reasonable distance of the coast – although I … A charming sanctuary for butterflies, common in UK woodland. The head and body length is from 23 to 30 cm, the tail from 19 to 25 cm and the adult weight varies between 400 and 600 grams. Plants and fungi are not only beautiful and interesting to study, but they also provide the building blocks on which all of our other wildlife (and ourselves) depend. Similar to the common Dog Violet this plant is found in damp grassland and heath. For beginners, we suggest starting during the flowering season). Flowers similar to a daisy but with shorter, broader petals. A true roadside stunner, cow parsley is a familiar sight in the UK. Robin Harford is a plant-based forager, ethnobotanical researcher and wild food educator. See Other Facts below before consumption. Found in most types of grassland as well as on waste/disturbed ground. British Wild Plant: Pulmonaria officinalis Lungwort Pulmonaria officinalis Lungwort I This plant was very commonly grown in gardens and has successfully escaped into the wild over the years. Plus structural formulae of hundreds of plant compounds: dyes, herbs, poisons, smells, etc. Herb Robert – Geranium robertianum However, it has increased in popularity among younger men in particular, over the last few years. This is our guide to some of the wild flowers that you might find in woodlands and hedgerows. Hedgerow Type : Common Names: Common Sorrel, Garden Sorrel, Narrow Leaved Dock, Spinach Dock : Scientific Name: Rumex acetosa : Season Start: Jan : Season End: Dec : … How people can help Our gardens are a vital resource for wildlife, providing corridors of green space between open countryside, allowing species to move about. Identifying Edible and Poisonous Wild Plants. Flowers April-October. Common on bare or well-walked ground such as the sides of tracks. White flowers with five petals, split halfway to the base. for both enthusiast and professional naturalists and wildlife conservationists. The Royal Horticultural Society is the UK’s leading gardening charity. Discover Wild Plants. Flowers May-September. Conservation Land Management (CLM) ist ein Mitgliedermagazin und erscheint viermal im Jahr. In this article we’ve featured a number of wild flowers that you’re likely to find, either in your garden or when out walking. This is our guide to some of the wild flowers that you might find in woodlands and hedgerows. 1. Spring and early summer are the perfect time to study your local plants as many will be in flower at this time, making them much easier to identify. Or why not check out one of our wild flower ID guides listed at the bottom of the post? Commonly found in gardens as well as arable fields, dunes, cliffs and heathland. Hunt along the hedgerows and meadows as well as on river banks and in woodland clearings. Cow Parsley – Anthriscus Sylvestris The name ‘common’ really does describe this plant and we can usually find it in any grass type environment at any time of year save a very harsh winter or a drought over summer. Fern-like leaves. Having knowledge of which plants are edible in your area lets you forage for extra food, which is nice when you are on a tight budget. and are identified by the Union Jack Flag. Chickweed Read. National Plant Monitoring Scheme. The five plants in this article are easily identifiable, widely distributed, relatively common, easily processed, between them represent available food year-round and provide a very favourable return on energy invested. Use this fantastic lesson pack to learn all about UK wild plants at KS1! Plus structural formulae of hundreds of plant compounds: dyes, herbs, poisons, smells, etc. A Wild Flower Identification Guide (ID Guide) for UK flowers indexed by colour, flowering month, number of petals, habitat, family and a fully cross-referenced contents list. B ritain has many beautiful wild flowers. They easily thrive at home environment and that poses a danger for children and pets, since the plant is toxic. We aim to enrich everyone’s life through plants, and make the UK a greener and more beautiful place. The Wild Flower Key: How to Identify Wild Flowers, Trees and Shrubs in Britain and Ireland #143162 . This species of Lavender is a popular and traditional plant in the UK and often used for compact hedges in contemporary design or conventional cottage displays. Flowers late March-June. A Wild Flower Identification Guide (ID Guide) for UK flowers indexed by colour, flowering month, number of petals, habitat, family and a fully cross-referenced contents list. Globular clusters of flowers on long stalks; usually off-white or pale pink. Wild plants includes both native species and introduced. From the daisy to the oak tree, they vary enormously in … It isn't uncommon to see the spotted leaves and different coloured flowers of this plant a long way from the nearest garden very early in Spring. Flowers March-July. #229143, Wild Flowers of Britain and Ireland This curious and common plant has many names – lords and ladies, wild arum, jack in the pulpit and priest’s pintle. Caution: Not all lily varieties are edible. Long stems with clusters of cream, fuzzy flowers which smell of honey or almonds. He established his wild food foraging school in 2008, and his foraging courses were recently voted #1 in the country by BBC Countryfile.. Robin is the creator of eatweeds.co.uk, which is listed in The Times Top 50 websites for food and drink. Climbing plants that can be seen growing amongst the hedgerow include wild honeysuckle (Lonicera periclymenum), with its sweet scented and very pretty yellow flowers; wild clematis (Clematis vitalba), which is recognisable by its hairy seed heads that give it the common-name of "old man's beard", and the dog-rose (Rosa canina), a classic pink single-petalled climbing rose. Flowers April-October. CLM enthält Artikel in Langform, Veranstaltungslisten, Buchempfehlungen, neue Produktinformationen und Berichte über Konferenzen und Vorträge. Image by L Wilkes. Where to find Common Cow-wheat. Red Campion – Silene dioica You'll learn the parts used, harvest time, nutrition and other ways humans use plants... Read more! Plants and fungi are not only beautiful and interesting to study, but they also provide the building blocks on which all of our other wildlife (and ourselves) depend. Das Magazin gilt allgemein als unverzichtbare Lektüre für alle Personen, die sich aktiv für das Landmanagement in Großbritannien einsetzen. Final slide show the plants that are on the accompanying worksheet. 2. Final slide show the plants that are on the accompanying worksheet. Toggle navigation. For the new science curriculum - identifying common plants and trees. The leaves often show a purple spot in the centre of the base of the leaf and this can also be seen to run down the petiole on some specimens. Bramble/Blackberry Read. Greater Stitchwort – Stellaria holostea In the coming months, we’ll be publishing articles on edible wild roots, berries, and fungi. Black cherry – Prunus serotina; Cabinet cherry – Prunus serotina; Rum cherry – Prunus serotina Use this fantastic lesson pack to learn all about UK wild plants at KS1! Likes dry, disturbed places such as waste ground, railways, walls and roofs. Scarlet Pimpernel – Anagallis arvensis #236523, Pocket Guide to Wildflower Families Wild plants can be used as food and medicine. This isn’t a tall weed, it can only get to 2 cm in height. Daisy – Bellis Perennis Native wildflowers to grow – knapweed. Plants listed in this section are those which have been used by humans for their mind- or emotion-altering properties. Flowers May-September. Occasionally it also appears in meadows. Rosebay Willowherb – Chamerion angustifolium Eatweeds.co.uk is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Programme, an affiliate advertising programme designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to Amazon properties. Deadly nightshade is most common in central, southern and eastern England but is also found less commonly in other parts of the UK. Flowers July-September. Daisy … Sign up here to receive emails about plants and Plantlife’s work. Guide to Flowers of Walks and Waysides #236523 Plus, there are numerous studies that suggest that being around plants has benefits for our mental wellbeing, including improved concentration and memory as well as a better overall mood. 6. The NHBS Guide to UK Wild Flower Identification Luanne Wilkes. Leaves oval and toothed. From a survival perspective, they should be at the top of your list of plants to learn. scientific literature through a combination of long-form articles, regular columns and reports, There’s a garden of free food out there waiting to be harvested if you know what to look for. Cow parsley. 30. Pulmonaria officinalis is found throughout England and Wales It is also found in Scotland except in the mountainous areas, the far north and west. We usually send them once a month. Discover the flowers, shrubs and trees that make up a typical British hedgerow … Thousands of customers trust us to provide the highest quality plants … These groups are: Algae Floating Plants Submerged Plants Emergent Plants Many ponds have more than one type of aquatic plant, and care must be taken to identify all the aquatic plants inhabiting the pond. Bird Spotting: 10 Most Common Wild Birds in the UK A lot of people view birdwatching as a hobby that requires far too much effort for too little reward. Forms long stems with rosettes of green-purplish leaves and blue flowers marked with white. Flowers June-October. Flowers are red with a purplish base. Bird Spotting: 10 Most Common Wild Birds in the UK. Some plants are more easily identified than others. White Clover – Trifolium repens Due to its high mucilage content, mallows make excellent soothing demulcent herbs, especially for cases of inflammation, either for the urinary, digestive or respiratory systems. Flowers March-October. For those concerned by the news, but unsure if their garden contains hidden danger, here is a handy guide to some of the most dangerous plants in the UK. Common mallow is a handsome, large, spreading plant with beautiful deep pink flowers that appear from June to October. 3. Another common weed in the UK, the Creeping Cinquefoil spreads on lawns and turfs alike, especially those that are poorly maintained. Spotter Sheets. The stem has long, narrow leaves in whorls. How seeds are spread › Flowering plants › › Flowering plants form the biggest group of plants. Native Flower features plants found growing without cultivation, in natural and urban environments in the UK. Bittersweet nightshade is a very common weed and is especially dangerous to have around kids, as kids are attracted to its brightly colored berries. Dr M’s series of posts on the Top 20 families of flowering plants kicked off with the three largest families globally: Asteraceae, Orchidaceae and Fabaceae. This is a new part of our site and the wild flowers / plants described here will 'grow' with time (see the list on the right); it is, however, a 'work in progress'. Extremely common during May on roadside verges and in woodland rides and clearings. Aquatic plants are generally divided into four groups for management purposes. Easily recognisable flower with a yellow centre and numerous white petals. 19th May 2020. #225655, Harrap’s Wild Flowers: A Field Guide to the Wild Flowers of Britain & Ireland Wild plants listed in Schedule 8 of the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981 (as amended) receive special protection. These plants range from the common to the extremely uncommon and include plants with a long history of use as well as those with little to no track record. Powerpoint has mixture of wild and cultivated plants, enabling you to discuss what this means. Bramble – Rubus fructicosus Flowers April-June. It can be found growing in woodland, heaths and upland moors. Common Comfrey is a popular plant in herbal medicine and is regularly used to treat sprains, bruises and wounds, and to ease the pain of arthritis. Bamboo (Bambusoideae) Picture comes up alone so you can ask children if they can identify it then click and name comes up. Below you will find some of the varieties of wild flowers that we have photographed as we travel along. Weeds are wild plants in the wrong place. The plants on these pages are organised in alphabetical order of systematic name for ease of use. Fairly common in moist, shady woodland (deciduous). Plant & Fungi Species. 5. Most children know that an acorn comes from an oak tree and a conker from a horse chestnut. Domesticated house plants can reach up to 3-4 metres, whereas in nature, the ficus tree can grow higher than 20 m. The Ficus family consists of almost 800 different species of shrubs and trees – also called rubber plants. County Flowers . A. Allium triquetrum ; Media in category "Edible wild plants" The following 15 files are in this category, out of 15 total. Dandelions lead a double life, being both a persistent weed and good wildlife plant, RHS Garden Hyde Hall Spring and Orchid Show, Free entry to RHS members at selected Monitoring their abundance and diversity is key to understanding the health of our habitats. This helpful KS1 Science quiz is for year 1 and year 2 and is all about identifying and naming well-known plants. Meadowsweet –Filipendula ulmaria 1a1: Identify and name a variety of common wild and garden plants, including deciduous and evergreen trees. 3. Flavor: This plant has a slightly peppery taste. Lady’s Mantle, Alchemilla vulgaris This member of the Rosaceae family grows abundantly in wild meadows, especially in northern parts of the UK. Ivy-Leaved Toadflax – Cymbalaria mularis Grey Squirrel is the tenth most common mammal in UK with a population of 6,730,000. Habitat: Grassy Heath land and Coastal Fringes. 10. Low growing/sprawling with yellow star-shaped flowers. Chances are that you’ll also find a few species that aren’t included here – you can find lots more information on the Plantlife website, including ways to submit your findings to their records. For over fifteen years I have documented, recorded, experimented and explored the world of wild plants. Bright blue flower with a white eye on a sprawling stem. The astringent properties of this flower allow it to treat a range of conditions from muscle spasms to cuts and wounds. However in Britain the size order of the top-twenty families has been documented by UK botanist David Streeter in his recent Wild Flower Guide and these three families are not (quite) the top three in Britain. Common knapweed. This plant is becoming less common. They may have benefits for wildlife in your garden, but if you want to get rid of them, check first how they grow and spread. Hoes, hand forks and border forks are key tools for dealing with weeds. Aromatic leaves. Found in walls, pavement cracks and on waste ground. Look them over and commit the plants to memory. 7. British Wildlife is the leading natural history magazine in the UK, providing essential reading Events. Flowers June-September. You can change your mind by clicking a link we put in the emails. (For other times of the year, a guide such as the Vegetative Key to the British Flora is invaluable – but it may take a bit of practice. Wild carrot – Daucus carota; Carrot weed – Ambrosia artemisiifolia; Cart track plant – Plantago major; Catalina ironwood – Lyonothamnus floribundus ssp. 9. 8. See our guide on how to control weeds without chemicals. 2/16/15 6:00PM • Filed to: survival. Wild fennel is a very common plant in the UK and in some cases is even considered a pest as it can grow profusely and indeed invasively. Magazin gilt allgemein als unverzichtbare Lektüre für alle Personen, die sich aktiv das... 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Read more nine of the wild flowers, shrubs and trees British is! Population of 6,730,000 ’ t a tall weed, it can also purple. Sinapis arvensis ; Cherry – Prunus spp particular attention to parks, waste ground discuss this! Ferns are magnificent non-flowering plants that are on the site here you find. In Langform, Veranstaltungslisten, Buchempfehlungen, neue Produktinformationen und Berichte über Konferenzen und Vorträge a spot! Großbritannien einsetzen als unverzichtbare Lektüre für alle Personen, die sich aktiv für das Landmanagement in Großbritannien einsetzen identifying.... Wildflower plugs are easy to grow and can create a stunning display while providing food and medicine grower British! Eat a wide range of conditions from muscle spasms to cuts and wounds has increased popularity! And wildlife conservationists ; Cherry – Prunus spp harvested if you know what to look for,! And wounds 236523 Hedgerow plants and Plantlife ’ s work researcher and wild food plants, enabling you discuss... Floor for a flush of purple, white or lilac flowers ; a favourite of butterflies arable fields dunes... S leading gardening charity und Vorträge children if they can identify it then click and name comes up on! Perspective, they vary enormously in … for the new science curriculum - identifying common plants and guide. Anywhere from the stem has long, narrow leaves in whorls with that letter during on... Plants '' this category contains only the following page Ireland # 143162 – Buddleja davidii flowers June-October Artikel in,... Footpaths and on waste ground, railways, walls and in pavement and! Being both a persistent weed and good wildlife plant Equipment so you eat. Four groups for Management purposes resources for adults, children, parents and teachers features, using menu selectors colour! About UK wild plants pay particular attention to parks, waste ground ground as well as on heaths in...