In front of the International Court of Justice, Nicaragua claimed that the contras were altogether a creation of the U.S.[28] This claim was rejected. However, since the earliest days of the nation, encounters with the US military have often meant death and destruction, as opposed to freedom and justice. [15]:965 The Reagan administration's policy towards Nicaragua produced a major clash between the executive and legislative arms as Congress sought to limit, if not curb altogether, the ability of the White House to support the Contras. Fley was the Contras' war crimes investigator, and tried to bring charges against Contras who committed war crimes, and "Comandos" is the tale of how he tried to do it. [12] The rest of those indicted or convicted were all pardoned in the final days of the presidency of George H. W. Bush, who had been Vice President at the time of the affair. "The contras are made up of a combination of: ... anti-Sandinista opponents of ex-dictator Somoza (some of the members of the FDN political directorate eg Messrs. Chamorro and Cruz)..." As seen at: Gill 1984, p. 204, International Court of Justice (IV) (1986), p. 446, "Although Calero had opposed Somoza, the FDN had its roots in two insurgent groups made up of former National Guardsmen..." As seen at: Lee et al. [99], In January 1988 during a live interview with Bush on CBS Evening News, Dan Rather told Bush that his unwillingness to speak about the scandal led "people to say 'either George Bush was irrelevant or he was ineffective, he set himself outside of the loop. Marginal note:Short title 1 This Act may be cited as the Crimes Against Humanity and War Crimes Act. “There was substantial evidence of drug smuggling through the war zones on the part of individual Contras, Contra suppliers, Contra pilots mercenaries who worked with the Contras, and Contra supporters throughout the region…. Similarly, reporters neglected to investigate many leads indicating that Oliver North was running the Contra operation from his office in the National Security Council. Informar de un abuso. He crossed himself. We are fighting armed people and returning fire when fire is directed at us. The diplomat claimed that "[Ariel] Sharon violated it, and Haig backed away...". Jonathan Scott Royster, Liaison to Oliver North, was given immunity from prosecution on charges of conspiracy and destroying documents in exchange for his testimony. [33] Subsequently, on 14 September 1985, 408 more TOW missiles were delivered. [46] Howard Teicher described the cake as a joke between North and Ghorbanifar. Annual reports summarize the activities of the program during the … [15]:966 To fund "the Enterprise", the Reagan administration was constantly on the look-out for funds that came from outside the U.S. government in order not to explicitly violate the letter of the Boland amendment, though the efforts to find alternative funding for the Contras violated the spirit of the Boland amendment. [5], The plan was later complicated in late 1985, when Lieutenant Colonel Oliver North of the National Security Council diverted a portion of the proceeds from the Iranian weapon sales to fund the Contras, a group of anti-Sandinista rebels, in their insurgency against the socialist government of Nicaragua. According to The New York Times, enough documents were put into a government shredder to jam it. The New York Times explains: "Iran at that time was in dire need of arms and spare parts for its American-made arsenal to defend itself against Iraq, which had attacked it in September 1980," while "Israel [a U.S. ally] was interested in keeping the war between Iran and Iraq going to ensure that these two potential enemies remained preoccupied with each other." [66]:701 The Democratic-controlled United States Congress issued its own report on 18 November 1987, stating that "If the president did not know what his national security advisers were doing, he should have. [45] Poindexter told Reagan that Ghorbanifar had important connections within the Iranian government, so with the hope of the release of the hostages, Reagan approved this plan as well. [14]:249 This meeting also failed. As seen at: International Court of Justice 1986, VIII (1), "But the Court, remarkably enough, while finding the United States responsible for intervention in Nicaragua, failed to recognize Nicaragua's prior and continuing intervention in El Salvador." [76], The Independent Counsel, Lawrence E. Walsh, chose not to re-try North or Poindexter. "Reassessing the Causes of Nongovernmental Terrorism in Latin America". Senior administration officials secretly facilitated the sale of arms to the Khomeini government of the Islamic Republic of Iran, which was the subject of an arms embargo. The effort to support the contras was one component of the Reagan Doctrine, which called for providing military support to movements opposing Soviet-supported, communist governments. [1][2][3][4][5] These actions were frequently carried out systematically as a part of the strategy of the Contras. [14]:216, Weinberger's notes have Reagan saying he "could answer charges of illegality but he couldn't answer charge that 'big strong President Reagan' passed up a chance to free hostages. Yes, the Contras committed many war crimes, to the point where the US Congress passed a law making it illegal for Americans to fund them (a law which President Reagan ignored). "[70] Handwritten notes by Defense Secretary Weinberger indicate that the President was aware of potential hostage transfers[clarification needed] with Iran, as well as the sale of Hawk and TOW missiles to what he was told were "moderate elements" within Iran. They eventually relented, and in February 1986, 1,000 TOW missiles were shipped to the country. Though Hashemi made a full video confession to numerous serious charges, some observers find the coincidence of his leak and the subsequent prosecution highly suspicious. The CIA, and high-ranking United States Government officials, insisted that we merge with the Guardsmen. Chamarro’s election was a repudiation of over 10 years of Sandinista rule that had been characterized by a destructive war with the Contras and a failing economic system. 5373–5380, 5386–5386; Chapter 6 Scott Royster 148. [18][19], As reported in The New York Times in 1991, "continuing allegations that Reagan campaign officials made a deal with the Iranian Government of Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini in the fall of 1980" led to "limited investigations." This is the policy, to keep putting pressure until the people cry 'uncle'". "After all, this is war—a paramilitary operation," Clarridge said in conclusion. DELAYED REPORT ON SOVIETS IN NICARAGUA", "The Powers of Congress and the President in International Relations: Revisited", "Executive Order 12513--Prohibiting trade and certain other transactions involving Nicaragua", "Ortega collects warm words of support on European trip. [3][4][7] Handwritten notes taken by Defense Secretary Caspar Weinberger on 7 December 1985 indicate that Reagan was aware of potential hostage transfers with Iran, as well as the sale of Hawk and TOW missiles to "moderate elements" within that country. Annual Reports. The Contras for the most part consisted of right-wing extremists, former land elites and ex-members of the feared and vicious Guardia Nacional (whose head had been a Somoza for most of the forty years prior to 1979), which was responsible for the most egregious human rights violations under the previous Somoza regime. Eugene Hasenfus, who was captured by Nicaraguan authorities after surviving the plane crash, initially alleged in a press conference on Nicaraguan soil that two of his coworkers, Max Gomez and Ramon Medina, worked for the Central Intelligence Agency. Yet his visit is unlikely to drum up much concrete aid", "War Against the Poor: Low-Intensity Conflict and Christian Faith", "CIA-assisted 'contras' murdered Sandinistas, official reportedly says", "The Contras, cocaine, and covert operations: Documentation of official U.S. knowledge of drug trafficking and the Contras", "The Contras, Cocaine, and Covert Operations", "How the CIA Watched Over the Destruction of Gary Webb", "Kill The Messenger: How The Media Destroyed Gary Webb", "Conclusions — Central Intelligence Agency", "Human Rights Watch World Report 1993 – Nicaragua", "Case Concerning Military and Paramilitary Activities in and Against Nicaragua (Nicaragua V. United States of America): Affidavit of Edgar Chamarro", "Both Sides Report Heavy Fighting in Rebel Offensive in Nicaragua", "Sandinistas report capture of RedEye Missile", "Enough Have Died for Nothing in Nicaragua", "New Regional Accord Leaves Contras in Honduras Fearful but Defiant", "THE WORLD: Nicaragua; Pushed From Left or Right, Masaya Balks", "Sandinistas Surviving in a Percentage Game", "Nicaraguans Try Peace Moves While Waiting for U.S. The Iran-Contra Affair was a secret U.S. arms deal that traded missiles and other arms to free some Americans held hostage by terrorists in Lebanon, but also [17] Although the FDN had its roots in two groups made up of former National Guardsmen (of the Somoza regime), its joint political directorate was led by businessman and former anti-Somoza activist Adolfo Calero Portocarrero. [14]:214–215 By contrast, when testifying before the Tower Commission, Reagan declared that hostage issue was the main reason for selling arms to Iran. "[14]:216 Now retired National Security Advisor McFarlane flew to London to meet with Israelis and Ghorbanifar in an attempt to persuade the Iranian to use his influence to release the hostages before any arms transactions occurred; this plan was rejected by Ghorbanifar. [41] It was not until 1993, years after the trial, that North's notebooks were made public, and only after the National Security Archive and Public Citizen sued the Office of the Independent Counsel under the Freedom of Information Act. [7] Administration officials argued that regardless of Congress restricting funds for the Contras, or any affair, the President (or in this case the administration) could carry on by seeking alternative means of funding such as private entities and foreign governments. Former Embassy of Iran in Washington, D.C. PLEDGES AID, TIED TO ORDERLY TURNOVER", "After the Poll Wars-Explaining the Upset", "Bush Vows to End Embargo if Chamorro Wins", "U.S. trying to disrupt election in Nicaragua, Canadians report", "Military and Paramilitary Activities in and Against Nicaragua (Nicaragua v. United States Of America) – Summary of the Judgment of 27 June 1986", "Case concerning Military and Paramilitary Activities in and Against Nicaragua (Nicaragua v. United States of America), Vol. doi:10.1111/j.1548-2456.2004.tb00277.x. Maj. Gen. Avraham Tamir, a high-ranking Israeli Defense Ministry in 1981, said there was a "oral agreement" to allow the sale of "spare parts" to Iran. ", "It also disseminated what one official termed "white propaganda": pro-Contra newspaper articles by paid consultants who did not disclose their connection to the Administration." The agency added to the Contras' sabotage efforts by blowing up refineries and pipelines, and mining ports. hostages. Crack became a nightmare within the U.S especially for the African-American community. [49] It "is now a given; it is true", the Washington Post declared in 1986, "the Sandinistas are communists of the Cuban or Soviet school"; that "The Reagan administration is right to take Nicaragua as a serious menace—to civil peace and democracy in Nicaragua and to the stability and security of the region"; that we must "fit Nicaragua back into a Central American mode" and "turn Nicaragua back toward democracy," and with the "Latin American democracies" "demand reasonable conduct by regional standard."[50]. [21], In April 1982, Edén Pastora (Comandante Cero), one of the heroes in the fight against Somoza, organized the Sandinista Revolutionary Front (FRS) – embedded in the Democratic Revolutionary Alliance (ARDE)[22] – and declared war on the Sandinista government. Oliver North wrote that "Ronald Reagan knew of and approved a great deal of what went on with both the Iranian initiative and private efforts on behalf of the contras and he received regular, detailed briefings on both...I have no doubt that he was told about the use of residuals for the Contras, and that he approved it. [50] North used this release to persuade Reagan to switch over to a "sequential" policy of freeing the hostages one by one, instead of the "all or nothing" policy that the Americans had pursued until then. [34] On 24 November 1985, 18 Hawk anti-aircraft missiles were delivered. Second, we launched the contra war along with an illegal economic war to terminate what Oxfam rightly called "the threat of a good example." The contras were the brutal right-wing paramilitary groups in Nicaragua who terrorized civilians throughout the decade, cutting a swath of torture, rape, and murder aimed at everyone from the elderly to children. [14]:215, The following arms were supplied to Iran:[31][32]. [14]:214 Only the Director of the Central Intelligence Agency William Casey supported McFarlane's plan to start selling arms to Iran.[14]:214. The money was eventually returned to the Sultan of Brunei, with interest. Voters", "U.S. Endorses Contra Plan as Prod to Democracy in Nicaragua", "Turnover in Nicaragua; NICARAGUAN OPPOSITION ROUTS SANDINISTAS; U.S. [99][102] Nevertheless, the Contras remained tenuously encamped within Honduras and were not able to hold Nicaraguan territory. No journalist paid it any attention until the alleged CIA supply man, Eugene Hasenfus, was shot down and captured by the Nicaraguan army. A una persona le resultó útil. [14]:250 After the failure of the secret visit to Tehran, McFarlane advised Reagan not to talk to the Iranians anymore, advice that was disregarded. As seen at: International Court of Justice 1986, VII (5), "...Finds that the United States of America, by producing in 1983 a manual entitled "Operaciones sicológicas en guerra de guerrillas", and disseminating it to contra forces, has encouraged the commission by them of acts contrary to general principles of humanitarian law." ", "Poindexter and North Have Limited Options", "Walsh Iran / Contra Report - Chapter 15 William J. Casey", "15 Years Later, the Remaking of a President", "Weinberger charged in Iran–Contra matter", "Bush Pardons Weinberger, Five Others Tied to Iran–Contra", "Walsh Iran / Contra Report – Chapter 17 United States v. Clair E. George", "North, Poindexter and 2 Others Indicted on Iran–Contra Fraud and Theft Charges", "Civil Liberties Union Asks Court To Quash Iran–Contra Indictment", "United States of America v. John M. Poindexter, Appellant, 951 F.2d 369 (D.C. Cir. [99] ARDE Frente Sur attacked at El Almendro and along the Rama road. US President Ronald Reagan stated in 1983 that "The defense of [the USA's] southern frontier" was at stake. World War I was the first major international conflict to take place following the codification of war crimes at the Hague Convention of 1907, including derived war crimes, such as the use of poisons as weapons, as well as crimes against humanity, and derivative crimes against humanity, such as torture, and genocide. They did not take kindly to one imperial power being replaced with another. Of those polled, 85% opposed any further US aid to the Contras; 40% believed the Sandinista government to be democratic, while 48% believed it to be not democratic. Funding ran out for the Contras by July 1984, and in October a total ban was placed in effect. I: Investigations and prosecutions", "Irangate: Iran–Contra affair, 1985–1992", "McFarlane Took Cake and Bible to Teheran, Ex-C.I.A. [ 99 ] [ 32 ] [ 101 ] Bush said that `` [ Ariel ] Sharon violated,. 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