Multiple linear regression models of lead SNPs showed coefficients of determination (R²) of 0.49, 0.22, and 0.41 for the tiller number at the maximum tillering stage, productive tiller number, and productive tiller ratio, respectively. With respect to the interaction effect of seed rate and row spacing, significant effects were observed on total tillers/m, effective tillers/m, thousand seeds weight and straw yields. RESEARCH ARTICLE Agbeleye et al. The study revealed that the hybrids differed significantly among themselves for all the characters. Feng, Z., QI, Z., Zhang, Z. et al. Trans Chin Soci Agric Eng 32(08):105–112, Meng XY, Zhou LY, Zhang ZX et al (2019) Effects of different irrigation methods on growth, water and radiation use efficiency of rice. Key findings: Promising accessions for breeding flood tolerant varieties were identified from the evaluation of two thousand and two accessions of O. glaberrima for tolerance of the three most important flood types affecting rice production in Asia and Africa: flooding at germination (AG), submergence at seedling stages and stagnant flooding. Dept. The cultivars collected from both the saline and non-saline rice tracts showed gradual increase in the accumulation of total phenolics in response to increase in salt stress. In rice, miR156 could repress OsSPL14 functions by cleaves its mRNA, and miR156-OE plants resulted in rapid tiller initiation . In this study, we demonstrated that inhibiting expression of the rice amino acid transporter OsAAP3 increased grain yield due to a formation of larger numbers of tillers as a … The numbers of effective tillers per plant differed between years, varieties, and irrigation (data not presented). Upland rice cultivars suffer from intermittent moisture stress during critical growth stages especially during germination, tillering, panicle initiation and grain filling period leading to yield loss to a considerable extent. Tiller Angle Control 1 (TAC1) is a key regulator responsible for the different tiller angles between japonica and indica rice. The effective tillers produced by BRRI dhan 29 were 6.94 and 6.45% higher than Aloron and Hira-2. The two key part of a rice crop that is useful to this research are its tiller and panicle shown in Fig. Maintaining crop yields under adverse environmental stresses is a major challenge facing modern agriculture where polyamines play an important role. The number of spikelets per panicle and the percentage of ripened kernels are closely related with cultivation environment at the panicle formation stage … PubMed Google Scholar. by changing the practices used to manage rice plants, the soil they grow in, and the water they receive through irrigation, so that the plants can become more productive For rice plants to be more productive, they need to have: • More tillers per plant, • More fertile tillers (panicles) which form from the tillers … Background: Tiller number is the key determinant of rice plant architecture and panicle number and consequently controls grain yield. The tiller number at different development stages and heading traits involved in phase transitions were evaluated. Plant hormones are major players in the control of axillary bud growth. Highly tolerant donor rice accessions are needed to breed improved flood-tolerant rice varieties that can increase the productivity of the rainfed lowland ecology. The cultivars showed differential variation in the accumulation of total phenolics in relation to salt stress showing that the character was cultivar specific. Five cultivars namely Orthadian, Orkazhama, Kuthiru, Kuttusan and Chovvarian collected from one of the saline, Phytohormone like low molecular weightaliphatic polycationic compounds known as polyamines have an essential role inplant growth and development and they respond to various environmental stress factors. Plants under drought condition survive by doing a balancing act between maintenance of turgor and reduction of water loss. Google Scholar, Hao SR, Guo XP, Zhang ZY (2010) Compensation effects of water stress and rewatering on the structure of rice canopy. Chronological of tillers and their Plant Breeding, 2(2), 38-42. of Agronomy. Field Crops Res 233:70–79, Article  The aim was to see the effects of the weed control treatments on crop growth and yield in boro rice. Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout. Botany of Paddy Rice is one of the most important food crops in the world and it is the staple food for over 2.7 billion people. FLOODING. Acta Agric Boreali-Sinica 28(05):133–137, Liang MA (2017) Variety comparative analysis of tillering characteristica and main agronomic traits in rice. Genetic Basis of Tiller Dynamics of Rice Revealed by Genome-Wide Association Studies, Heterosis analysis for yield in hybrids involving new plant type and indica lines of rice (Oryza saiva L.), Relative Contribution of Rice Tillers of Different Status Towards Yield. Efficient screening techniques are pre-requsiite for success in selecting desirable genotypes through breeding programme. Most of the candidate genes were involved in the phase transition from vegetative to reproductive growth. Grain yield showed the average reduction by 34.19% being highest in genotype Luchai (50.91%) and lowest in Urai buta(8.59%). The highest and statistically significant grain yield (3.06 t ha -1 ) was obtained from the seed rate of 120 kg ha 1-1. All the rice plants were grown in a greenhouse, with 10 h light and 14 h dark, or in the field under natural conditions in summer, Shanghai, China. Results showed that proline concentration increased in all the cultivars studied in relation to increase in salt stress and it was progressive along with increase in stress. • Therefore, regulation of tiller dynamics is important for crop management; too few tillers limit grain yield and too many tillers result high tiller abortion, poor grain filling and reduction of … In recent years, rice varieties with high tiller numbers have been pursued by many rice breeders, as these high-tillering varieties theoretically could produce more effective panicles. Chhattisgarh is known as the rice bowl of the country. The total land area under cultivation in Chhattisgarh is 5.64 million hectares, out of which rice occupies about 3.85 million hectare. Hybrid rice relies mainly on tillers to obtain the desirable population; conventional rice relies on number of seedlings planted. The number of rice tillers was rapidly enhanced at the tillering stage and gradually decreased with the increasing number of non-effective tillers . By a genome-wide association study (GWAS), we detected 20 significant association signals for all traits. All rights reserved. In India, area under rice is 44.6 m ha with total output of 80 million tonnes (paddy) with an average productivity of 1855 kg/ha. Differences in grain yield and yield components Given that the rice yield of a particular plant is ultimately the summed grain weight of all of the grains from all of the tillers of that plant, we expanded our phenotypic analysis to encompass the grain number per tiller. Tillering potential of rice, an important aspect in rice cultivation, is genetically controlled. Rice is consumed by half of the world’s population. In respect of production, India ranks second with 95.68 million tonnes of paddy (Anonymous 2006). Each tiller will bear a rice panicle, and you can get up to 100 grains of rice per panicle. All selected accessions were similar or better than the best O. Wuhan University, Liang H, Hu K, Qin W et al (2019) Ground cover rice production system reduces water consumption and nitrogen loss and increase water and nitrogen use efficiencies. In order to study the effects of shallow wet–dry irrigation at tillering stage on effective tiller numbers, photosynthetic activity, yield and water use efficiency (WUE) of rice in black soil region, a pot experiment was conducted at Qingan National Irrigation Test Station of Heilongjiang Province from May to September in 2019. The effective rice LAI has been shown to change among regions by as much as 6 to 10, and the related parameters, such as the extinction coefficient and intercepted photosynthetically active radia- ... groups, N improves the rice population productivity mainly by increasing tillers number. The maximum number of tillers usually occurred at the late tillering or jointing stage (approximately 40 DAT). We also evaluate the tiller number at different development stages and heading traits involved in phase transitions. We are grateful to the staff of the National Key Irrigation Experimental Station for their technical assistance. Join ResearchGate to find the people and research you need to help your work. Evaluation of hybrids based on mean performance disclosed that the hybrids, L6 x T2, L9 x T4, L5 x T4, L4 x T4, L3 x T1, L1 x T2, L1 x T3, L2 x T2 and L3 x T3 were superior for most of the yield contributing traits. Among the cultivars studied, Kuthiru showed the highest quantity of phenolic compounds and Orkazhama showed the highest percentage of increase of phenolics over the control plants in relation to increase in salt stress. Results identified six O. glaberrima accessions (TOG 5505-A, TOG 5485, TOG 5980-A, TOG 8347, TOG 7252-A, TOG 16704) for AG. It is a model monocotyledonous crop. A portion of the late tillers will generally die due to competition effects. 1. In this study, we demonstrated that inhibiting expression of the rice amino acid transporter OsAAP3 increased grain yield due to a formation of larger numbers of tillers as a … This result is supported by Hos-sain et al. Subscription will auto renew annually. These tillers are called secondary tillers. more crop dry matter production and effective tillers (Table 3). Article  Tillers from the rice plant emerge in a specific chronological sequence and it mainly depends on its duration and morphology. 2: Effective and non-effective tillers of boro rice at harvest affected by variety (S x − = 03916 and 0.0365) Am-Euras. Tillers in rice crops appear as soon the rice crop is self-supporting (Maclean, Hardy, & Hettel, 2013). tillers (0.29), number of productive tillers (0.36) and cooked rice iron (0.22). The plant can perennate through ratoon production. Trans Chin Soc Agric Eng 26(7):71–75, He HB, Wu LQ, Yang R et al (2016) Photosynthesis characteristics and transpiration efficiency of rice plants under controlled irrigation technology in arid region. This result is supported by Hos-sain et al. Transplanted crops generally produce more tillers than direct seeded crops, and dry season crops often produce more tillers than wet season crops. It has been known for a long time that two hormones in particular, auxin a… Los Banos (Philippines). Drought acts a serious limiting factor in agriculture scenario by preventing a crop from reaching the genetically determined theoretical maximum yield. Furthermore, tiller number decreased when OsSPL14 mutated at the OsmiR156-targeted site . However, the availability of asparagine generated from AS1 reactions is apparently less effective for the outgrowth of tillers. rice tracts of Kerala and two cultivars namely Kunhutty and Veliyan collected from one of the non-saline rice tracts of Kerala were used for the study. Rice is the most widely consumed staple food for more than half the world's human population. and loss of productivity. Stem rot incidence and severity increase as stand densities are increased; thus, avoid rice stands that are too dense. The effective rice LAI has been shown to change among regions by as much as 6 to 10, and the related parameters, such as the extinction coefficient and intercepted photosynthetically active radiation, changed along with that of the LAI [ 19 ]. WANG Feng, et al. However, comprehensive analyses of the genetic basis of the tiller number, considering the development stage, tiller type, and related traits, are lacking. The population productivity increased at optimum planting densities. J Irrig Drain 37(10):35–41, Yu GR, Wang QF et al (2010) Coupling effect of wetting and drying alternative irrigation and nitrogen application rate on photosynthesis characters of rice leaves. In most higher plants, shoot branches develop from axillary buds in the axils of leaves. The hybrids were evaluated for their extent of heterosis on the basis of commercially exploitable standard heterosis for yield traits. Plant architecture is determined by the pattern of shoot branching (McSteen and Leyser 2005). Tillering potential of rice, an important aspect in rice cultivation, is genetically controlled. The highest total polyamine content was noted in the cultivar Orkazhama followed by Kuttusan and Kuthiru which were collected from a traditional saline rice tract of North Kerala. Genotypes found in cluster VI was the highest yielder (5304 kg/ha) followed by cluster IV (4189 kg/ha) and Cluster III (3278 kg/ha). © 2008-2020 ResearchGate GmbH. While, panicle length and number of grains per panicle were higher under PTR. 1. Identification of suitable genotypes and their improvement can be used as a potential method to evolve salinity resistant rice genotypesfor different geographical zones. The lowest number of effective tillers/hill (5.95) was recorded in Raniselute. secondary and tertiary tillers which come forth at different stages of growth. B. Phosphorus. Total number of tillers showed significant positive effect on number of productive tillers (0.925) but showed negative effect on panicle length (0.36), hundred grain weight (0.37), biomass (0.04), zinc content in brown The whole plant will become bluish green in colour. Complex and ecologically responsive rice-fish farming systems have evolved in the coastal wetland regions of India over centuries. This concept is recent and it displaces the early concept of high tillering rice varieties. - 85.187.139.156. Leaf count indicates a plant’s age and as it grows, its leaves will develop and grow in size [5]. The rice japonica variety Nipponbare and the indica variety 93-11, the genomic DNA sequences of which are known, were used to analyze the response of the panicles exserted from the caulis and from various effective tillers at four stages of panicle development to neck blast. Vol. Tiller outgrowth analysis. In particular, HD1 was simultaneously associated with the productive tiller ratio and heading date, indicating that the photoperiodic heading gene directly controls the productive tiller ratio. 1.1 Rice Crop Tillers & Panicle This research would focus on phenotyping of rice crops. Tillering is an important agronomic trait for rice population quality and grain production. A tiller is a stem produced by grass plants, and refers to all shoots that grow after the initial parent shoot grows from a seed. Effective tiller was a bit higher in cluster II but panicle length was almost similar across the clusters. Res Agric Mod 35(02):158–162, Hao SR, Guo XP, Wang WM et al (2006) Effects of water stress and re-watering at shooting stage of rice on chlorophyll pigments in leaves. Effect of different combination of nitrogen source on effective tillers per square meter of Rice at Rupandehi, Nepal, 2015 From Growth Parameter and Yield Attributes of Rice (Oryza Sativa) as Influenced by Different Combination of Nitrogen SourcesSangita Karki, Nabin Sharma Poudel, Gopal Bhusal, Suresh Simkhada, Bhishma Raj Regmi, Bhuwan Adhikari, Sanjok Poudel Tillers from the rice plant emerge in a specific chronological sequence and it mainly depends on its duration and morphology. More effective tillers per plant are believed to be closely associated with high seed yield per plant resulting high productivity. Rice Panicles The number of tillers per plant will vary according to nutrient status, variety and planting rate (higher seeding rates normally give fewer tillers). Rice is the most important food grain crop with regard to human nutrition and caloric intake. It is a monocot plant, normally grown as an annual crop. Trans Chin Soc Agric Mach 41(3):52–55+61, Hao SR, Guo XP, Wang WJ et al (2010) After effects of water stress on corn growth atdifferent stages. New plant type of rice for increasing the yield potential of rice. Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Li HJ (2013) Factors affecting of rice tiller and measures to increase effective tiller of rice. They are involved in vegetative propagation and, in some cases, also seed production. The total polyamine content in some native rice, Salinity is a major yield reducing factor in coastal as well as arid irrigated rice production systems. This property was shown by all the cultivars irrespective of the fact whether they evolved in a saline habitat or a non-saline habitat. Rice germinates as a single culmed seedling, but soon after the seedling stage it produces primary, secondary and tertiary tillers which come forth at different stages of growth. Amino acid transporters (AATs) play indispensable roles in nutrient allocation during plant development. Nitrogen deficiency reduces the plant height and number of tillers. Acta Ecol Sin 28(2):525–533, CAS  Conclusions: We revealed the genetic basis of tiller number in rice plants during growth by a GWAS and formulated a prediction model by linear regression. Meri kheti Mera Kisan 29,932 views. FOR TOLERANCE TO ABIOTIC STRESS. For each rice pest, farmers have their own economic injury levels. 2.4 The rice tiller and its 3 vegetative parts 28 2.5 Two types of roots of a rice tiller 29 2.6 Parts of a primary tiller and its secondary tiller 30 2.7 Parts of a leaf 32 2.8 Component parts of a panicle 33 2.9 Parts of a spikelet 34 2.10 The male and female parts of a rice flower 35 3.1 The 10 growth stages of the rice … Crops treated without N fertilizer + Azolla 100 kg ha-1 were unable to produce high number of total and effective tillers (Fig. The cultivars Kuttusan and Orkazhama ranked second and third. Grain yield is a complex character and its expression under specific environment depends on one or more of yield components. It was inferred from the studies that cross combinations viz., L2 x T3, L3 x T1, L3 x T3, L4 x T1, L4 x T3, L4 x T4, L5 x T1, L5 x T2, L6 x T2, L8 x T2 and L9 x T4 expressed significantly superior heterosis percent for most of the characters including single plant yield. Tillering potential of rice, an important aspect in rice cultivation, is genetically controlled. Oxidative stress is one consequence of salinity that may be responsible for much of the damage. Rice is actually the edible fruit, called as a grain or caryopsis. Fig. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40003-020-00485-0, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s40003-020-00485-0, Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips, Not logged in Method to increase effective tillers in Paddy by SherGill Markhai - Duration: 5:38. Rice is the world's leading food crop, cultivated over an area of about 145 million hectares. © 2020 Springer Nature Switzerland AG. The results indicated the suitability of basmati rice cultivars (CSR 30 and PB 1121) for direct seeding.In coarse grain varieties, plant height, number of tillers, dry weight, number of effective tillers, net returns and B:C were higher under DSR as compared to PTR. 1.1 Rice Crop Tillers & Panicle This research focuses on phenotyping of rice crops. 1). Maximum tiller population is reached between 90 and 120 days after planting. Correspondence to Trans Chin Soc Agric Mach 50(01):263–274+284, Xu DH (2016) The present situation and sustainable development of rice in Heilongjiang province. Variation in Senescence Pattern of Different Classes of Rice Tillers and Its Effect on Panicle Biomass Growth and Grain Yield 1048 . Drought is the most devasting abiotic stress that curtails the crop productivity of rice in rainfed areas and most recalcitrant to breeders' effort. Thus, it is necessary to optimize the tiller number to achieve the maximum yield in rice. Four irrigation treatments were set up at tillering stage, namely light shallow wet–dry irrigation (T1), moderate shallow wet–dry irrigation (T2), severe shallow wet–dry irrigation (T3) and shallow water irrigation (CK). Proline is an amino acid which increases in plants under abiotic stress. The plants were subjected to different levels of salt stress ranging from 0 to 200 mM of NaCl and the concentration of proline in the leaf samples was inspected. J Hohai Univ (Nat Sci) 34(4):397–400, CAS  4. The yield (Y) and WUE in T1 treatment were higher than that of the other treatments, significantly (P < 0.05). This type is good for northern areas and can withstand a light frost. Trans Chin Soc Agric Mach 48(04):233–241, Shao XW, Ruan CC, Zhao LP et al (2005) Effects of water stress on growth and yield of rice in tillering stage. IV). A mutation in the 3ʹ‐splicing site of its fourth intron decreases the level of tac1 , resulting in the compact plant architecture of japonica (Yu et al ., 2007 ). However, the availability of asparagine generated from AS1 reactions is apparently less effective for the outgrowth of tillers. Google Scholar, Lu HF, Guo XP, Zheng B et al (2016) Photosynthetic characteristics of Japonica rice leave under alternative stress of drought and waterlogging. The difference in effective tillers/hill is due to the genetic makeup of the rice varieties. J Jilin Agric Univ 27(1):6–10, Shao CX, Pan XB, Li JW et al (2019) Effects of flooding duration in different growth stages on growth and yield component of rice. The hybrids, L3 x T1, L3 x T3, L1 x T2, L6 x T2 and L7 x T1 had significantly high sca effects for maximum number of traits. Furthermore, the model was validated using independent japonica rice collections, implying that the lead SNPs included in the linear regression model were generally applicable to tiller number prediction. Because of these relationships, the leaf number concept provides researchers with an effective index for studying development of shoot and root systems in rice, including the prediction of tiller morphology, the estimation of potential tiller increase, and analysis of root system dynamics. Hortic Seed 07:71–75, Zhang XX, Fan Y, Jia Y et al (2018) Effect of water deficit on photosynthetic characteristics, yield and water use efficiency in Shiranui citrus under drip irrigation. And a stable population is reached between 90 and 120 days after planting drought condition survive by a... Breeding high-yield rice varieties content got increased starting from the 10mM NaCl treatment itself part of a rice that... 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Cultivars showed differential variation in Senescence pattern of shoot branching ( McSteen and Leyser 2005 ) in advanced screening seen... Leaves will develop and grow in size [ 5 ] with unweeded control all selected accessions similar... Rice bowl of the rainfed lowland ecology and Leyser 2005 ) is yet another to! Showed fewer tillers than did WT standard heterosis for yield traits of asparagine generated from AS1 reactions is less... Genomic regions near known candidate genes were involved in vegetative propagation and, in cases... 'S height and disease reduction were measured 45 days after inoculation in 1997 and 1998 the... Is actually the edible fruit, called as a tiller number is most! Scenario by preventing a crop from reaching the genetically determined theoretical maximum yield study published in AoB plants shoot... Selecting desirable genotypes through breeding programme selecting desirable genotypes through effective tillers in rice programme 145... Foundation of China ( effective tillers in rice, 51809042 ) stem rot incidence and severity increase stand. The coastal wetland regions of India over centuries and gradually decreased with the application of fertilizers is another. 6.94 and 6.45 % higher than Aloron and Hira-2 the desirable population ; conventional rice relies mainly on tillers obtain! Entire collection was first screened in preliminary evaluation and best performing accessions were further evaluated in advanced.... Research you need to help your work reduction of water loss t ha -1 ) was recorded in Raniselute of. And tertiary tillers which come forth at different stages of growth usually occurred at the late tillering or jointing (. Proline is an important aspect in rice limits the agriculture production by preventing a crop from reaching the determined! Than direct seeded crops, and you can get up to 100 grains rice! Most devasting abiotic stress affecting rice production in rainfed areas and can withstand a light.. Edible fruit, called as a tiller number is the most widely used method rice. ) dataset GWAS ), we sequence 219 Korean rice accessions and constructed a high-quality single nucleotide polymorphism ( )!, interrupting the metabolic processes of plants, resulting in reduced growth and grain yield 1048 India... Similar or better than the best O to breeders ' effort cases, also seed production reached the normal after. 1.1 rice crop 's height and disease reduction were measured 45 days after inoculation in 1997 1998! Effective in-field technology to quickly detect productive tiller numbers area of about 145 million hectares, out which. The highest and statistically significant grain yield ( 3.06 t ha -1 ) was recorded in.. Recorded as effective tillers and the tillers having filled grains were recorded as tillers! Which showed fewer tillers than direct seeded crops, and miR156-OE plants in! Only for earhead bug, do they apply pesticides only if the infestation crosses economic injury levels overall.... Monocot plant, normally grown as an annual crop we also evaluate the number! Increasing number of effective tillers/hill is due to the staff of the.! Total and effective tiller is one consequence of salinity that may be responsible for much of the genes! Induced stress in seven native rice ( Oryza sativa L. ) cultivars environment for the plant curtails... Staff of the candidate genes through breeding programme: //doi.org/10.1007/s40003-020-00485-0, DOI: https: //doi.org/10.1007/s40003-020-00485-0, over 10 scientific... And consequently controls grain yield 1048 tillers having filled grains were recorded effective! For breeding high-yield rice varieties with the optimum tiller number at different stages of.. Transporters ( AATs ) play indispensable roles in nutrient allocation during plant development varieties, and Irrigation ( not. 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And further improvement programmes using these cultivars will give rise to promising rice varieties expressing full... Vegetative propagation and, in some cases effective tillers in rice also seed production technical assistance relation to salt stress showing the! And severity increase as stand densities are increased ; thus, it is necessary optimize! Higher plants, shoot branches develop from axillary buds in the control axillary... 2005 ) play an important aspect in rice for increasing the genetic makeup of rainfed! Or better than the best O propagation and, in some salinity tolerant rice cultivars and varieties their extent heterosis... Of tillering in rice cultivation, is genetically controlled ranks second with 95.68 million tonnes Paddy... Of proline in salinity induced stress in seven native rice ( Oryza sativa effective tillers in rice ) cultivars non-saline., weed competition and damage from pests plants leading to severe crop damage age as! When compared to the cultivars collected from the 10mM NaCl treatment itself property... Develop primary and secondary tillers, but not every tiller contributed equally to the showed... Cooked rice iron ( 0.22 ) DOI: https: //doi.org/10.1007/s40003-020-00485-0, DOI https. And approaches tillers ( Fig total and effective tillers ( 0.29 ), we sequence 219 Korean accessions! Were involved in vegetative propagation and, in some salinity tolerant rice cultivars and.... Means to increase the productivity of rice crops plants under drought condition by... Recorded as effective tillers in Paddy by SherGill Markhai - duration: 5:38 remains with. [ 5 ] rice stands that are too dense salinity that may be responsible much. As stand densities are increased ; thus, avoid rice stands that are too dense tolerance AG. Were detected in genomic regions near known candidate genes were involved in vegetative propagation and, some... The six clusters or more of yield components plant hormones are major players in the six clusters tillers... Suited for the outgrowth of tillers and the tillers having filled grains were recorded effective. And a stable population is established production by preventing the plants from expressing their genetic... Rice in rainfed areas and most recalcitrant to breeders ' effort in most higher plants, et...