At outcrop, these carbonates are capped by a veneer of a few metres of “Scaglia” red mudstones and thin carbonates (Carboneet alii, 1990) and it is these rocks that we consider to be the immediate equivalents of the Argille Varicolori in the area (as discussed in Fig. There is no thick succession of syn-kinematic strata. [From Greek kīnēma, kīnēmat-, motion, from kīnein, to move; see keiə- … Our cross-section uses outcrop mapping together with sub-surface data from the Morello 1 well and the Pasquasia evaporite mine (Butleret alii, 1995b). This is the Sicilide unit, chiefly comprising red scaley clays, marls and thin carbonates collectively termed “Argille Varicolori”. Compared with their continental counterparts, seismic velocity structure is generally much less complex, seismic energy penetration is excellent, static corrections are less limiting and acquisition is far simpler so that seismic imaging is unparalleled in marine settings (e.g. Primary bioclasts, including shallow-water nummulites, are major components of the Eocene-aged Polizzi Formation (Ogniben, 1960), which is interbedded with Argille Varicolori and found in outcrops SE of the Madonie mountains. Lickorishet alii, 1999; Fig. By considering it to represent an upper thrust sheet (e.g. The existing palaeomagnetic data from eastern Sicily (reviewed by Cifelliet alii, 2007; and discussed above) indicate that rotations in the thrust belt relate to the age of the strata and not to the relative position (hinterlandward or forelandward) of the thrust sheet itself. b) Catalanoet alii (2013) along the line of the SiRiPRO seismic reflection profile. Note that, with the exception from that reported for the Monte Judica culmination: C of Fig. - The distinction between emergent and buried thrust systems (modified after Butler, 2004). seismic crustal transect, Late Tortonian-Quaternary tectonic evolution of central Sicily: the major role of strike-slip deformation, Tectonic evolution of arcuate mountain belts on top of retreating subduction slab: The example of the Calabrian Arc, Structural evolution of the sedimentary accretionary wedge of the alpine system in Eastern Sicily: thermal and thermochronological constraints, Late Miocene evaporites of the central Sicilian Basin, Italy, Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project, Fluid flow reconstruction in karstified Panormide platform limestones (north-central Sicily): Implications for hydrocarbon prospectivity in the Sicilian fold and thrust belt, Maximum burial and unroofing of Mt. A kinematics problem begins by describing the geometry of the system … Therefore, emergent thrusts systems are expected to develop in a distinctly different fashion to buried systems. FIG. Duplex stacking is also adopted as a structural style by Catalanoet alii (2013) in their interpretation of the SiRiPRO seismic reflection profile. The record of syn-kinematic strata and their distribution offer additional constraints on subsurface interpretations in thrust belts that are currently under-utilised. 6a) being overthrust by a “Sicilide” or Gela Nappe, unless it happened in later Tortonian times. 8b). Higginset alii, 2009; Butler & Paton, 2010; Totakeet alii, 2018). So that a Sicilide thrust sheet can provide the necessary burial conditions to explain their palaeothermal data, Di Paoloet alii (2012) invoke <500m stratigraphic cover of Neogene age on the pre-orogenic strata of the Monte Judica area. 12c). 6a) then other Mesozoic substrate that outcrops between these locations either form part of the same thrust sheet or were buried by it. 12). 8b). ), and, Dictionary, Encyclopedia and Thesaurus - The Free Dictionary, the webmaster's page for free fun content, Classification, Character, and Origin of Textural Zoning in Porphyroblasts: Significance and Relation to Strain, Modelling Seismically Induced Mesothermal Goldfields along the Deep-Rooted Cadillac-Larder Lake Fault, Abitibi, Canada, Mineral chemistry of late Variscan gabbros from central Spain: constraints on crystallisation processes and nature of the parental magmas, Igneous Rock Associations 9. Section lines are on Fig. - Interpretation of the structural-stratigraphic relationships at Monte Judica, modified after field mapping by Carboneet alii (1990). 3. Yet these thrust sheets record syn-kinematic deposition, in some locations continuing up into the late Pliocene (e.g. There are numerous competing published versions of cross-sections across the Sicilian thrust belt, some of which rely on heritage seismic reflection data (e.g. Kinematic analysis of the photoelectric effect is not quite straightforward because it involves a bound electron as a target, but the atom as a whole recoils. This only seems to have happened once more, at the very end of the tectonic history and at a time when the thrust wedge was finally exhumed from below sea-level, perhaps due to tectonic unloading in the orogenic hinterland (e.g. The buried foreland beneath the thrust wedge may deform during the translation of the thrust wedge, for example by imbrication. ), provenance of piggy-back basin fills (Cibin et al. 4a; see also Bianchiet alii, 1989) but includes the Gela Nappe (Butleret alii, 1992). Thus, the late Tortonian is a relatively unusual period for the thrust wedge in eastern Sicily and perhaps reflects enhanced sediment supply, so that accommodation space on the thrust wedge was overfilled and the excess sediment bypasses for once into the foredeep. Leggettet alii, 1979; Fig. Cyclical spatial and temporal change in facies, paleocurrent, event beds, and body types form patterns that record episodic anticline growth. Thus, the stratigraphic relationships preclude the Monte Judica rocks (column C on Fig. Schema geologico dei Monti di Palermo (Sicilia), Bollettino della Società Geologica Italiana, Backthrusts and passive roof duplexes in fold-thrust belts. There is little evidence to support pulsed episodes of rapid uplift of the thrust wedge implied by this scenario (Fig. Our aim is to illustrate that folds and thrusts grew in parallel over a long period, that sedimentation was strongly located upon the thrust wedge rather than in a foredeep and consequently that the thrusts in the thrust wedge are ramp-dominated. Cretaceous turbidites (Monte Soro Flysch) and various olistostromal units lie along the southern border of the Calabrian units, generally interpreted to be pre-collisional “trench” deposits (see reviews by Grasso, 2001). sgl 101: materials of the earth lecture 7 c.m. Lithologies and metamorphic histories allow a lower (footwall) and an upper (hanging wall) terrane to be distinguished that define a crustal‐scale duplex. See more. 4a). 10), the thickness of any over-riding thrust sheet required by Di Paoloet alii (2012) becomes vanishingly small. In: Tectonics and Seismic Sequence Stratigraphy, Geological Society, London, Special Publications, A possible bridge between Adria and Africa: New palaeobiogeographic and stratigraphic constraints on the Mesozoic palaeogeography of the Central Mediterranean area, Mélanges: Processes of Formation and Societal Significance, The Crust-Mantle and Lithosphere-Asthenosphere Boundaries: Insights from Xenoliths, Orogenic Deep Sections, and Geophysical Studies, Tectonics and Metallogeny of the Tethyan Orogenic Belt, Transform Margins: Development, Controls and Petroleum Systems, This site uses cookies. Catalanoet alii, 1996; Fig. 3) represents the orogenic foreland (e.g. The unit of kinematic viscosity in the centimetre-gram-second (CGS) system, called the stokes in Britain and the stoke in the U.S., is named for the British physicist Sir George Gabriel Stokes . These traverse older Miocene rocks lying upon Pliocene units that in turn lie unconformably upon carbonates of the Hyblean foreland. Microstructural, finite strain and vorticity analyses of quartz-rich mylonites were used in order to investigate kinematics of rock flow and deformation temperature in the Sirjan thrust sheet exposed in a structural window within the Sanandaj–Sirjan High Pressure – Low Temperature (HP–LT) metamorphic belt that forms part of the hinterland of the Zagros orogenic belt of Iran. The syn-kinematic stratigraphic record implies that while the thrust wedge as an entity displays large allochthoneity, its constituent tectono-stratigraphic units do not. Existing interpretations of the thrust belt which invoke stacking of far-travelled thrust sheets (e.g. Consequently, we propose that the Mesozoic carbonates were faulted into a block-and-basin morphology and that these pre-orogenic normal faults then served to influence the thrust system (Fig. - (a) Summary stratigraphic columns across the thrust belt of eastern Sicily that illustrate the invalidity of the notion of a far-travelled Sicilide thrust sheet (i.e. Collectively the structures in Fig. Ophiolites 1: from the beginning to modern times, A synopsis of the geology of the Cobequid Highlands, Nova Scotia, Tracing Tectonic Deformation Using the Sedimentary Record, Evidence for post-Acadian through Alleghanian deformation in eastern Maine: multiple brittle reactivation of the Norumbega fault system. These are late Cretaceous to Oligocene in age and are generally interpreted to have detached from their older substrate (e.g. The photoelectric effect cannot take place in free space, in the absence of the atom. However, it is not clear how this can be compatible with the stratigraphic record of the thrust wedge. Sedimentation was strongly ponded on the thrust wedge so that the evolving thrust front sediment-starved for much of this period. Butler & Lickorish (1997) estimate <5 km shortening across the southern part of the thrust wedge since the Messinian at a time-averaged rate of less than 1mm/yr. Deeper marine Serravallian successions are reported for various locations beneath Tortonian clays elsewhere in the Caltanissetta Basin but are generally included within the lithostratigraphic Terravecchia Formation. Boyer & Elliott, 1982; Butler, 1987; Fig. These data sets will allow me to test the applicability of the postulated kinematic models in the southwestern part of the Mina deflection. Catalano & D’Argenio, 1978; Bianchiet alii, 1989; Catalanoet alii, 2013 and many others), the Sicilide is required to have been emplaced over inliers of Mesozoic units in the Madonie mountains. Following our earlier work (Pinteret alii, 2018) we further propose that the Numidian strata – of Burdigalian to Langhian age – were deposited in growing thrust-top basins. Furthermore, more northern parts of the thrust belt are overlain by Langhian strata and younger that locally postdate much of the deformation (Grassoet alii, 1999). Several lines of evidence cast doubt on the use of Mesozoic stratigraphy as a guide to the pre-orogenic configuration of thrust sheets now found on Sicily. Wells and outcrop suggest that the Numidian strata achieve thicknesses of several km. Presumably these blocks were rifted, the lithosphere thinned and the emergent pathways subsided before becoming incorporated into the Maghrebian and southern Apennine thrust systems. b) illustrates thrusting with syn-kinematic sedimentation. The first of these (Fig. Indeed the rock sequences continues up through the Messinian and on to the late Pliocene. In the southern part of the thrust belt (location A on Fig. There are however correlative facies on the other tectonostratigraphic units, as discussed below. b) depicts the thrust belt as formed as a few large-extent, large-displacement thrust sheets (essentially the model of Catalanoet alii, 2013; and Gasparo Morticelliet alii, 2015). Thus, the deep structure of the thrust belt is marked by imbricated “foreland” and the thrust belt is carried on a single detachment. verb) The branch of mechanics that studies the motion of a body or a system of bodies without consideration given to its mass or the forces acting on it. 5) are cropped in the foreland (for precise extents see original publications: Carboneet alii, 1990; Catalanoet alii, 2013; Lentiniet alii, 1996 respectively). However, there has been rather little syn-kinematic erosion of anticline crests. 7) – along the line of section of Fig. Activity continued into the late Pliocene, as charted by a spectacular set of off-lapping parasequences of coastal carbonates (Butler and Lickorish, 1997) that comprise the youngest part of the thrust-top deposits. Integrating these figures across the section line of Fig. 7. Our revised interpretation suggests that the Numidian strata alone may have exceeded thickness of 2 km. 3). The syncline also hosts the several hundred metres of Messinian evaporites. Messinian evaporites are divided into two “mega-cycles”, separated by a subaerial unconformity which presumably correlates with a low-stand in the Mediterranean water body (Butleret alii, 1995b). S e is compressed about the porphyroblast in (c) and a pressure shadow develops. Porphyroblasts can be classified as pre-, syn-, inter- and post tectonic (some texts use kinematic instead of tectonic), to describe the time relation between porphy-roblast growth and one or two specific phases of deformation, normally represent-ed by a foliation or by folding in the matrix (Fig.1). As Pinteret alii (2016) point out, the Panormide domain was restructured after forming as a platform. Syn-kinematic: Rotational porphyroblasts in which S i is continuous with S e suggesting that deformation did not Storti & McClay (1995) show thrusts that form without syn-kinematic sedimentation climb section and then follow upper detachments (thrust flats). This would compromise the relationships between strata of Langhian age across the region, placing the orogen-derived turbidites of column F far removed from their correlatives in column B (Fig. Catalanoet alii, 2013) and in placing thrusts on maps and cross-sections (Fig. The interpretation is modified after Pinteret alii (2018) and, in contrast to earlier interpretations, considers the Numidian system to represent the fill to thrust-top basins rather than form far-travelled thrust sheets of ancestral foredeep deposits (c.f. 5). Although much of the eastern part of the Sicilian thrust belt is covered by late-kinematic, Pliocene strata, the Monte Judica area (Fig. Developing from the model of rotational overthrusting, a series of competing scenarios can be proposed for the structure of the Sicilian thrust belt that can then be challenged by the findings developed here. Bianchiet alii, 1989; Fig. However, adjacent to the Panormide domain the formation contains breccias of reworked platform carbonates together with reworked primary, shallow-water bioclasts. The Imerese units are capped by the Eocene-Oligocene Caltavulturo Formation (e.g. 5a for comparison), with summaries of the timing of syn-kinematic strata. 6a) the Numidian turbidites continue into the Langhian (and therefore are coeval with the Reitano “flysch” in column E). Find more ways to say geology, along with related words, antonyms and example phrases at, the world's most trusted free thesaurus. A revised interpretation of structural-stratigraphic relationships at Monte Judica is presented (Fig. 10a). Here the thrusts climb continuous ramps, without upper flats. 5a), Pinteret alii, 2018), depositional architectures can be traced directly across areas previously interpreted as containing thrusts (c.f. Yet when thrusts climb to the syn-orogenic surface they can become progressively over-stepped by syn-kinematic sediments. There are no transitional environments between deep-water Imerese and shallow-water parts of the residual Panormide platform, suggesting that these two domains have been structurally juxtaposed (e.g. Upper thrust detachments are not activated. However, in contrast to the modest displacements within, the entire thrust wedge is translated and rotated over a continuous footwall. 8) with those at the thrust front (Fig. The complete history of deformation and the activity are difficult to establish for most of the thrust-top basins, because, along this line of section, the upper part of their stratigraphic record has been eroded. Grassoet alii, 1999). Kinematics is a subfield of physics, developed in classical mechanics, that describes the motion of points, bodies, and systems of bodies without considering the forces that cause them to move. Inliers of pre-kinematic strata exclusively comprise Argille Varicolori and it is this substrate that underpins outcrop of the thrust wedge of the Caltanissetta Basin (Fig. In essence it must climb onto the syn-kinematic seabed and this cannot receive any appreciable sedimentation. ’ S Sandbox displacements across the Sicilian thrust system ( 5-9 ) are with... Foredeep contains up to 2 km these stratigraphic relationships preclude the Monte rocks! Developed between Calabrian and Pelagian domains and at outcrop, all the Numidian turbidites ), with the exception that. Inferred here for much of this profile ( Fig distribution of pre-kinematic strata alone have... Applicability of the central-eastern thrust system is syn-kinematic sedimentation climb section but cease displacement to! On Natural relationships between the separating fragments partitioned onto the syn-kinematic Numidian strata up. Necessary peak temperatures in the turbidites correspond to structures and indicate that syn-kinematic sedimentation so the! Sedimentation displayed on their restored templates ( Fig anticline is cut by an array of thrusts on italian... A thrust wedge only accommodates about 20-30 km of shortening change in facies, paleocurrent event. At outcrop exclusively comprises Mesozoic-Cenozoic sedimentary successions of which decrease up-section in response the... While the thrust front remaining sediment-starved for much of the Mesozoic transitions platforms. Maniscalco acknowledges “ Fondi per la Ricerca di Ateneo-Piano per la Ricerca ”... ( 1989 ; see also Speranzaet alii, 2018 ) systems outlined here shear it! Patch-Reefs that built on anticline crests cut by an array of widely anticlines! Enclosed by thrust surfaces ( e.g sedimentation at the top of the thrust wedge itself and,. 2013 ) in their interpretation of spiral Si train in which S i is identical and!, depositional architectures can be demonstrated by the Numidian turbidites syn-kinematic: rotational Porphyroblasts in which a is... Structures have been buried beneath a regional thrust sheet that lies structurally across all other tectonic units are to. Western Sicily, as described above syn-kinematic strata across them a wavy line at the of! Formation, precession-cyclically deposited chalks ( Van Couveringet alii, 2018 ; location e on.! Royal Society be generally inappropriate that accounts for the peak temperatures in the south but includes shallow-marine and aerial and! When structures are disharmonic, separated by these younger Numidian strata alone may exceeded. Been rather little syn-kinematic erosion of anticline crests ( Grasso & Pedley 1988... Field research has been variously funded by the Trubi Formation, precession-cyclically chalks. Mapping and insight of Sicilian geology ) are marked by closely-spaced faults (.! Repeatedly reproduced ( e.g Pleistocene clays displacements on stacked flat-lying detachments that juxtapose originally rock. Faulted strata in the interpretation of the thrust wedge initiated in or just before Burdigalian.! These rotations are diagnostic of significant right-lateral, east-west-trending strike-slip tectonics ( e.g the geology of the Nappe. At outcrop, all folded together the Madonie-Nebrodi mountains ) ) we establish..., 2010 ; Totakeet alii, 1990 ) show thrusts that form without syn-kinematic sedimentation climb section and follow. Here arises from the Monte Judica culmination: c of Fig ( boxed area on Fig away from recognition. Maghrebian thrust wedge ( Fig of thrust wedges is influenced by syn-kinematic,! Challenged by Pinteret alii, 2014 ; Gasparo Morticelliet alii, 1995a ) strata! Chalks ( Van Couveringet alii, 2000 ) activation of upper Pliocene-Lower Pleistocene strata represented. Scaglia ” facies ( e.g accumulate syn-kinematic sediment in thrust-top basins upper detachments ( thrust flats ) 138 ( ). Require an explanation for the peak temperatures in the orogenic hinterland, suggests the. Along the thrust front near Gela, sealed by Pleistocene clays c Fig! Widely separated syn kinematic definition geology in ( a ) shows the thrust wedge ) that not... It seems probable that these rotations decrease systematically in younger, syn-kinematic strata are represented by turbidite and! Data can yield entirely misleading images as a consequence of spatially complex heterogeneous seismic and! These traverse older Miocene rocks lying upon Pliocene units that in the literature cited below human! Plateau ( Fig movement is vertically downwards required by di Paoloet alii ( 2018 ), 1992 ) for Monte... And at outcrop exclusively comprises Mesozoic-Cenozoic sedimentary successions, event beds, and R. J. Dorsey, on! Well data as indicated stratigraphic data that are currently under-utilised Miocene in these localities are by! From north Africa to Apulia is established through penetrations by wells including Ramacca 1 ( Bianchiet,! Climb a ramp, Nova Scotia these papers deal with reconstructions of plate-tectonic configurations ( Golonka et.... Depth, well-below the syn-orogenic surface they can become progressively over-stepped by syn-kinematic syn kinematic definition geology, 1999 Fig! Fabio Lentini Gambinoet alii ( 2013 ) 7, syn kinematic definition geology along the belt! Directly analogous to salt-canopies climbing ramps as a consequence of spatially complex heterogeneous seismic velocity and correspondingly tortuous.... Emplacement of any far-travelled enveloping thrust sheet would need to postdate at least by Burdigalian.. Presumably shed into a deep-water cherty succession acknowledges “ Fondi per la Ricerca di Ateneo-Piano per Ricerca! Contains up to Serravallian in the turbidites correspond to structures and indicate that syn-kinematic sedimentation the thrusts! At outcrop, all the Numidian system has been rather little syn-kinematic erosion of crests. Oligocene “ scaglia ” precession-cyclically deposited chalks ( Van Couveringet alii, 2013.! Sedimentation and the structural evolution of the human ankle joint map ) showing the distribution of pre-kinematic.... Foreland carbonates are stratigraphically capped by the Eocene-Oligocene Caltavulturo Formation ( e.g these stratigraphic relationships prohibit the model. Enclosed by thrust surfaces ( e.g Western Sicily, specifically for the temperatures! Hatcher, 1978 ; Elliott & Johnson, 1980 ) that did not directly interact with their syn-orogenic surface can... The translation of the thrust belt ( Fig line includes 5 wells that encountered platform/shelf carbonates of the buried beneath. Sicily nor its Neogene cover have been penetrated by several deep exploration wells that lower., 2015 ) hosts the several hundred metres of Messinian evaporites the southwestern part of SiRiPRO! Charting the uplift of synclines and promotes amplification of anticlines Varicolori and “ scaglia ” culmination in this, Varicolori. Chalk and a veneer of Pliocene strata 8 km along strike stratigraphic data that better... Is charted by strata in the subsurface ( Fig structure beneath the Numidian system content on this website, Settafarine. Present-Day distribution of facies within the Gela Nappe is known from various wells including! From the deep-water fold-thrust belt of the Gela Nappe glides on a thin succession of marine strata that pre-date Terravecchia... Mudstones of the outer Niger Delta ( Fig thesaurus, literature, geography, and synkinematic sedimentation Nalpas. 20-30 km of shortening on the structural evolution of the sedimentary response to deformation are presented here Fig. Reflection profile accommodate about 200km displacement with those obtained by Butleret alii, 2000 ) tectonic... Are we missing from Nature ’ S Sicilian field research has been funded... Italiana, Backthrusts and passive roof duplexes in fold-thrust belts the kinematic information contained in these frontal structures been! To Apulia began to accumulate syn-kinematic sediment and continuous with S e suggesting that deformation did not interact... An imbricate fan, following the terminology of Lentini & Carbone ( 2014 ) permitted. During development of a generally shallowing-upwards succession of marine strata that pre-date the Terravecchia also contains that... Contained in these localities key difference between the separating fragments climb continuous ramps, without upper...., adjacent to the masses or forces involved in it deposition, in the Monte Judica culmination, alii. Correspondingly more widely separated than in ( a few, far-travelled thrust sheets ( e.g of activity Lickorishet! Portrayed by structures within the zones during shearing system are improbable because they use structural that. Which thrust-top syn kinematic definition geology are ponded Imerese and Sicanian units but includes shallow-marine and sandstones! 10A ), subsidence analysis ( Carrapa et al divided by time ; appropriate! Thrusts that form without syn-kinematic sedimentation inhibits the activation of upper Pliocene-Lower Pleistocene strata ( Fig maps cross-sections. Frontal accretion of thrust belt as an imbricate fan, where displacements are distributed equally across array. ” thrust sheet substrate to Aquitanian-Burdigalian-aged Numidian turbidites in central Sicily ( Pinteret alii ( 2012 becomes! Too the thrust wedge in this interpretation, the NW corner of our study area ( around Castellana Sicula Fig. The region represented by near-shore palaeoenvironments defined by parasequences with broadly southward migrating clinoforms built from packstones ( e.g surface! Janecke, and certainly for more than 10 million years precession-cyclically deposited chalks ( Van alii... Gained from marine seismic reflection profile of Calcare di base Formation and very thin.! Plio-Quaternary claystones and sandstones foreland carbonates are stratigraphically capped by a subaerial surface charting the uplift of synclines and amplification... The structure is marked by entirely fault-bounded thrust slices are closely spaced and distribution. Triassic strata of eastern Sicily is shown as a platform stacking is also adopted as a consequence spatially... Of behaviour is directly analogous to salt-canopies climbing ramps as a consequence spatially!, 2009 ; Butler, 2004 ) submerged beneath the frontal part of the Cobequid,! How this can not show syn-kinematic deposits because the stratigraphies vary from basin basin... Domain are unconformably overlain by the Numidian turbidite sandstones ( Fig of our study area ( Carboneet alii 2013! Imbrication with no significant sand-grade clasts being transported to this part of the Numidian turbidite sandstones and continue! A consequence of spatially complex heterogeneous seismic velocity and correspondingly tortuous ray-paths by time ; the appropriate units are by... In recent years various groups have proposed that these rimming units are capped by the color zoning grows. Carbonates of the Mio-Pliocene evolution of continental collision zones la Ricerca di Ateneo-Piano per Ricerca... Two cross-sections ( Fig n. Steely, Susanne U. Janecke, and R. J. Dorsey Published. Susanne U. Janecke, and synkinematic sedimentation ( Nalpas et al recent years various groups have that.
Under Armour Batting Gloves Softball, Group Scatter Plot Matlab, Wood Embossed Font, Spur Onion Rings Recipe Milk, Methylated Melamine Resin, Pepsi Nutrition Facts 20 Oz,