The Spanish population grew during that time. Enter your search terms Submit search form. In order to check on the state of affairs in the colonies, the Crown sometimes sent a royal inspector or visitador .The inspector was given great authority and usually assumed rule of the colony during his inspection . Charles II ( 1661 - 1700 ), feeble in mind and body, the centuries of inbreeding within the Hapsburg dynasty  was the last of the Spanish Hapsburg kings. In 1521, Spanish conquistador Hernan Cortes conquered the Aztecs and Mexico became a Spanish colony. Spain turned to the Old World model of haciendas, where small plots were consolidated into large estates where wheat was grown and European cattle bred such as longhorn cattle. The rule of Antonio de Bucareli ( 1771 - 79 ) was marked by peace and exceptional prosperity .Another viceroy, Revillagigedo , another able ruler( 1789 - 94 ) created the first public transportation system . The only manufacturing really developed during the period was the textile industry. Over the years, the number of African slaves diminished over the years from 20,000 in the 16th century to 6,000 by 1800. The most hated was the  alcabala, which was due on almost everything sold, which went from 2 % to as high as 14%. The Spanish conquest of Mexico that toppled the Aztec Empire in 1521 with the aid of indigenous allies, created a political entity known as New Spain, now usually called 'colonial Mexico.' The Spanish also controlled commerce. Basilica Guadalupe, Shrine built around 1700 where the Virgin of Guadalupe was first sighted in 1531 . Silver bar from shipwreck, The output of the American mines was usually shipped to Spain in the form of ingots. The Aztec people had previously made a fermented beverage from the agave plant, which they called octli (later, and more popularly called pulque. The new territories extended through most of Central America and much of the south and west of what is now the United States. There was no public library and no newspapers until 1805 . Our free newsletter about Mexico brings you a monthly round-up of recently published stories and opportunities, as well as gems from our archives. The novel Aztec Autumn by Gary Jennings is an account of this war .Nine years after the Mixton Rebellion, it's continuation, the Chichimeca War began and went on for half a century, with the Spanish eventually buying off the Chichimecs . The colonial period lasted until the revolt of 1810 which was led by a priest, Miguel Hidalgo, known today as the father of Mexico's independence. The Indian population was devastated in the early colonial period, with an estimated 70 to 90 percent dying off due to disease, famine and overwork. She was officially declared the patron saint of Mexico after she stopped an outbreak of plague in the city in 1737 .Her shrine there attracts thousands of pilgrims daily . The Spanish farmed large properties called haciendas, while the Indian population worked small plots, or as serfs on the lands owned by their Spanish lords. Britain colonized India from 1757 to 1947. Next is a segment showing how to take agua miel from the core of the maguey plant, which is used to make the alcoholic drink pulque. For some friars it was not unusual to baptize 4,000 Indians a day . The encomenderos were supposed to convert the Indians and look after their welfare .Spanish encomenderos were usually absentee landlords who lived in faraway cities .Charles V, wanting to protect his new vassals, outlawed encomiendas , but the grants had already been distributed by Cortes . Charles was a devotee of the enlightenment philosophies then in fashion in Europe and introduced reforms in Spain and the colonies . The Dutch East India Company established the first colony in 1652. A large number of Spaniards who had settled in New Galicia ( northern Mexico ) went on Coronado's expedition, leaving the area undermanned . The city states of the Mayans proved difficult to conquer unlike the centralized Aztecs .A revolt broke out in 1547 which took 20 years and an estimated 500 Spanish lives to quell . They were accused of being leaders of the crypto-Jews. A pulqueria is where you go and indulge. They built fortress missions across New Spain .Nine million were baptized by 1537. The also taught Spanish to the Indians and opened universities for Indian nobles , such as.\ Franciscan college of Santa cruz de Tlatelolco. Although colonial influence largely reshaped Mexico, its Native American roots … The Council regulated many aspects of life in New Spain, to the location of churches to what kind of crops could be grown . The viceroys or vice-kings, created an elegant court which became the center of European society in New Spain . Mining however, was of prime importance to Spain . Churches gained a fortress like appearance because of Indian attacks, thick walls were needed because of earthquakes. Mexico is a large country that was reborn as a result of the European colonization of the Americas. The first viceroy was not to arrive in Mexico till 1535. Mesoamerican history before Europeans arrived is variously called the prehispanic era and the precolumbian era. Movie about Juana de la Cruz Yo, la Peor de Todas 'I worst of all' in Spanish with English subtitles, Jose Joaquin Fernandez de Lizardi wrote what is considered to be the first novel written in New Spain in 1816 El Periquillo Sarmiento ( The Itching Parrot ). The Indians, vengeful of their treatment by Guzman took advantage of the opportunity to rebel in the ensuing Mixton War ( 1540-41), led by Tenamaxtli , the most serious revolt of the times .Alavardo himself was killed trying to subdue the Indians and the rebellion ended only after the viceroy led a large army into the area .Mendoza left a flourishing colony when he retired in 1550 with a legacy of strong royal rule .His successor, Luis de Velasco (1550-64) became known as the father of the Indians . The Colonization of Colombia Despite its name, Colombia was not founded by the explorer Christopher Columbus; he never even set foot in the country throughout the history of Colombia. By 1524, almost all of the Aztec empire, along with such regions as Colina, the valley of Oaxaca and the Isthmus of Tehuantepec had been brought under control of the colony .Ports were set up such as Acapulco to search for a passage to the East . Between 1521 and 1650 the Indian population was heavily reduced, largely as a result of fighting, diseases brought by the Spaniards against which they had no defenses, and the destructive effects of colonization on their way of life. Emigrants were screened before being allowed to go to New Spain . The new territories extended through most of Central America and much of the south and west of what is now the United States. All trade with New Spain had to be approved by Spain and carried on Spanish ships and through the one official port of Vera Cruz to collect duties . During this time, the vast majority of Iran was under rule by the Qajar Dynasty, … The European colonization of the Americas was the process by which European settlers populated the regions of North, Central, South America, and the islands of the Caribbean. Villages like Huatusco, in Veracruz, and Tlatlauquitepec, in Puebla, housed the Italian settlements. Under his rule Spain once again became a world power . In the years 1884 and 1885, the Berlin Conference formalized European colonization of Africa. In the early colonial period, Indian laborers were forced to work 12 hours a day and death rates were high . For 300 years Spain ruled the land until the early 1800s. The first major military expedition to Mexico, led by Hernán Cortés, landed near present-day Veracruz in 1519 and advanced inland toward the Aztec capital of Tenochtitlán hoping to conquer central Mexico. A large silver find in Zacatecas in the mid 1540s led to increased Spanish attempts to subdue the north .In the north the borders were slowly extended by missionaries and a few settlers and included most of modern day Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, California. Commerce was controlled by royal decree. The Bourbon reforms brought no social reforms, but the ideas of the Enlightenment and revolutionary France and America could not be stopped from entering New Spain .King Charles III died a year before the French Revolution and was succeeded by a son lacking in wisdom . In 1st Jan, 1810, Mexico started getting independence. The encomienda system attracted settlers and brought misery and death to many native people as it had in Cuba. Through widespread use in Europe, the Americas and the Far East, it became the first world currency by the late 18th century. (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); Council of the Indies, Viceroy and Audiencia. A statue of Lamport is immediately inside the monument to Independence. The effective occupation of northern Mexico occurred later in the century and involved prolonged fighting with nomadic Indians. Many  anthropologists say she represents a synthesis of Catholic and pre Columbian beliefs . Over time as the Indians gained more rights the encomiendas faded away . There were long periods of delay in communication with Spain, and the viceroys and when orders seemed contrary to what was needed, the viceroy sometimes noted ' Obedezo pero no complo ' ( I obey but do not execute ). To a smaller extent, Germany and Italy had, too. Uniquely in the Western Hemisphere, Mesoamerican civilizations developed glyphic writing systems, recording the political history of conquests and rulers. Reads like a novel, not a tour guide. June 1520 First populated more than 13,000 years ago, central and southern Mexico, (termed Mesoamerica), saw the rise and fall of complex indigenous civilizations. The European colonization of the Americas describes the Age of Exploration and the resulting conquest of indigenous lands. men born in New Spain would hold this office . These modernizations had the greatest impact under Charles III ( 1759 - 88 ). During the period 1878-1882, some were signed with Enrico Valentino Conti, Sociedad Rovatti y Cía., Francisco Rizzo and José A. Fulcheri, with the aim of establishing Italian settlers in Mexico. Despite the restrictions on administrative positions, many creoles prospered during this period in business . These were suppressed by summary trials and sentences of perpetual imprisonment, principally in San Luis Potos, Guanajuato and parts of Michoacan. Money makers such as tobacco, silk and cochineal ( insects which live on prickly pear cactus and  produced red dye ) were royal monopolies .There were royal taxes of all kinds on land, licenses, etc. For almost 300 years after 1521, Mexico was a colony of Spain and known as La Nueva España or New Spain. This was the open chapel or capilla abierta, which were covered over in time to create religious complexes such as the one at Cuilapan. By 1540, 50 such churches had been built . Jews who had converted were suspected of being 'crypto-Jews' and were investigated in New Spain .Pirates from Protestant countries were often burned at the stake for heresy . The onset of the Spanish Inquisition in Mexico in 1571 marked the end of the idealistic religious period of Renaissance influenced humanism of the mid 16th century . Spaniards tried to recreate the styles of Spain in Mexico, but was modified by the new land. Recently there has been a revival of wine making in Mexico in northern Baja and near Zacatecas . The Franciscan monks were the first to arrive in 1524. Overview of Spanish control of the Americas through the use of the Encomienda System. The silver bullion was sent to Spain in galleons was enough to pay for administrating all of the American colonies with a surplus .The China trade was established in 1564 silks, ceramics, tea and spices arrived from the Philippines at Acapulco and were transported across Mexico to Vera Cruz and sent to Spain with silver . Auto de fes drew large crowds , the first in the colony was in 1574 .Crimes like adultery, sorcery and blasphemy were punishable by floggings or fines.Only about 50 people were recorded to have been burn at the stake during the 250 years the Inquisition was used in New Spain . These economic restrictions and expensive European Wars caused Spanish power to seriously weaken by the 17th century . They organized their colonies in Mexico, and … Zambos, persons who were mixed indio and negro. This was a huge blow to the criollos and the poor of Mexico, criollos depended on church funds as a source of credit  and charity in times of famine and disaster .Many criollos were financially ruined by the act and embittered them toward the Crown .In New Spain, this decree led to riots and other disturbances. Across colonial Mexico twelve thousand churches were built and today almost ninety percent of Mexico's population is Roman Catholic. An artistic rendering of the retreat of Hernán Cortés from Tenochtitlán, the Aztec capital, in 1520. The Indians owed them tribute as well as forced labor and was a thinly disguised form of slavery . 1490 1492 Voyage of Columbus 1530 1570 1610 1519–1521 Cortés conquers the Aztecs. Colonization and Independence. University of the Cloister of Sor Juana, the former convent of the great poet Sor Juana, built in 1585 . Permission was need to publish from the viceroy and the bishop . In the 1540s most the Yucatan was conquered and the city of Merida was founded in 1542 . Provincial administrators were called Corregidores and reported to the viceroy . it was colonized in 1842 and Franklin Joseph Anderson colonized it. The Spanish capitalized on the colony's natural resources and developed trade based on agricultural products, textiles, and on mining, particularly silver. By the 18th century, Spain produced as much silver as the rest of the world combined . The presidios (military towns), pueblos (civilian towns) and the misiones (missions) were the three major agencies employed by the Spanish crown to extend its borders and consolidate its colonial territories in these territories. The spectre of the multi-continental empire of Spain passing under the effective control of Louis XIV provoked a massive coalition of powers to oppose the Duc d'Anjou's succession. By 1810, there were an estimated six million inhabitants in New Spain, of which 60,000 were Spanish born in Spain, 940,000 were Spanish born in the territories, 3.5 million were indigenous Mexicans, and 1.5 million were Mestizos—of mixed Spanish and Indian blood. Spanish This refers to both a language (common in Central and South America) and a people (located on the Iberian Peninsula) who colonized countries such as Mexico and Argentina. Spanish colonization of "Alta California" began when the Presidio at San Diego, the first permanent European settlement on the Pacific Coast, was established in 1769. Creoles could not hold royal office .Only whites were allowed to wear fine silk clothes, be called gentlemen ( caballeros ) and ladies ( damas ). Spanish conquerors defeated mighty empires in Mexico and Peru — the Aztecs and Incas. The Bourbon kings, wary of the papal links and coveting the wealth of the Jesuit's had them expelled in 1767 .In 1804 the crown decreed the Act of Consolidation in which the church's funds for charitable works were taken by the state . The first king of Madagascar, Radama I, who ruled from 1810 to 1828, allied himself with the British governor of a nearby island called Mauritius, and was supplied with weapons to conquer the east coast of Madagascar. In the early years these positions went to conquistadors or their sons. In 1st Apr, 1519, Hernan Cortes started conquering. Father Miguel Hidalgo declared Mexico's independence with his … In 1765 he dispatched to New Spain Jose de Galvez as visitor general . This meant a terrific labor shortage, which was rectified through the importation of 200,000 or more African slaves. Francisco Vazquez de Coronado - Mini Biography. These became one of the greatest sources of information about Mesoamerican civilization . The Colonial Era The following 300 years mark the Colonial era, when the territories of New Spain were expanded under the control of local viceroys, named by the Spanish crown. For the beginning of the colonial period there were religious disputes .The encomenderos resented what they saw as interference in Indian matters .The various orders sometimes fought over control of various territories .There were also quarrels with civil authorities .The most famous of which was an episode between the Jesuits and the bishop of Puebla, Juan de Palafox, who also held civil post and served the viceroy over the wealth of the Jesuits in which the secular church was gained more power . The Age of Exploration represents the beginning of the establishment of Western European control in what is now considered North and South America. Cortes recommended that the Crown send the Franciscans, Dominicans and the Augustinians - the mendicant orders and not the secular clergy. The printing press arrived in Mexico in 1537 . The country's patron saint is the Virgin of  Guadalupe, who made her appearance to Juan Diego on the site of an Aztec shrine of the Aztec goddess Tonantzin in 1531 on a hill outside of Mexico City . The written history of Mexico spans more than three millennia. Glazed pottery was brought to Mexico from Talavera de la Reina, Spain in the 16th century .Many people consider Puebla, Mexico the home of Mexican Talavera because of the first regulations and standards for determining uniformity and excellence of the traditional Mexican Talavera.Talavera is characterized by bright colors and floral designs .Because of the extensive imports from China to Mexico on the galleons , Chinese ceramic was soon imitated, particularly their designs. Below them were the Spanish born in Mexico the Creoles ( criollos ). Throughout much of the north, the first Spanish settlers were Franciscans and Jesuits who established missions. Tequila originated in the town of the same name about 65 km northwest of Guadalajara. While Cortes was conquering the Aztec capital, no one in Spain was aware of it and Cortes conquest was without official recognition . there were an estimated 25 million before the conquest and a little over a million by 1605 .The Indian population did not revive until 1650 .African slaves were imported to make up for the decrease in the Indian labor pool. Don Antonio de Mendoza, count of Tendilla, accepted the appointment as viceroy after three others had declined and arrived in Mexico in 1535. Philip inherited a ruined Spain because of the war with its economy in shambles and the treasury empty .Philip looked to the colonies to improve the economy of Spain . The lands of present-day Guatemala were a special case for the Spanish who conquered and colonized them. I don't think they would have been able to hold on to Central America and Mexico without a pretty contested fight. Such conditions led to rebellions and became hard to obtain laborer . He had two main concerns, improve the economy of New Spain and improve its defenses against foreign powers .The Crown developed a professional army in New Spain during the war to deal with the encroachments of the Russians in the northwest and English and developed colony in San Francisco and missions in Texas . In 1st Jan, 1600, two diseases, smallpox and typhus, spread all over Mexico. When similar laws were enacted in Peru an insurrection resulted which took the life of the viceroy .In 1564, the Crown decreed that all encomiendas would cease upon the death of the holder . Euromestizos, Spanish Indian mixture with Spanish characteristics predominating, Indomestizos, Spanish Indian mixture with Spanish characteristics predominating. Modern View. Cortes, who had left Mexico to control his former commander Olid in Honduras in 1524-26 was believed to be dead by the people of Mexico. .The Bourbons streamlined the vice regal administration, replacing 200 low paid, unskilled corregidores and local mayors with 12 regional intendents . It is estimated that the native population shrunk from ten to twelve million at the time of the conquest to approximately one million by the mid-seventeenth century. Iw was destroyed in the 1692 uprising and rebuilt and became the viceroy residence until Mexican Independence . Galvez took a 5 year tour of the colony and proposed sweeping economic and political reforms. The Spanish influence on American culture goes far beyond what many might think. The Inquisition was used in Spain by Ferdinand and Isabella to insure religious unity after expelling the Moslems . The main political, economic, and military power was held firmly in Spanish hands, and most indigenous people were kept in poverty. Another crucial element was the enslavement or virtual enslavement of much of the native population. Some Indians learned Latin so well that they taught it to the Spanish settlers .In the mid 16 century, the friars worked with the Indians to write about their native history and customs in their own language . While the physical decimation of the native population was a crucial element in the colonization of Mexico, it was only part of the dehumanization of the natives. The Inquisition also exercised control over printed works that entered the colony , especially those of the Enlightenment writers. What examples of new things can you find in this image? Pulque has about the same alcohol content as beer . The Churrigueresque style Cathedral in the silver town of Zacatecas, In the 17th century a more distinctively Mexican style emerged, the ultra  baroque Churrigueresque style ( named after Jose Churriguera, a Spanish architect ). Under this system each adult male Indian had to contribute 45 days of labor a year, usually a week at a time .There were many abuses to this system, which was abolished in the early 17th century, except for mine labor .Employers also lured Indians to become forced laborers under a system of debt peonage, in which Indians were paid in advance at rates they could not repay .The debts were passed down from father to son . Spanish Colonization In Mexico. Both British and Russian forces were interested in controlling present-day Iran (then the Persian Empire). This incensed the descendants of the conquistadors . Mexico And The European Colonization Of The Americas 1637 Words | 7 Pages. Under the Spanish administration, the indigenous population did not fare well. All the Spanish had to do was […] In 1529 Nuno de Guzman became one of three judges in Mexico City which led to one of the lowest points of Spanish administration in Mexico .This period between the rule of Cortes and the viceroys  was a time of corruption, graft and injustice as Guzman and the other oidores sought to enrich themselves and gain power . Almost immediately the War of the Spanish Succession (1702-1713) began. The restrictions, combined with bad roads, bandits and attacks of Chichimecs kept a healthy, diversified economy from growing . Vaqueros  (cowboys ) on haciendas with their silver spurs and wide-brimmed  sombreros  to protect themselves from the sun grew up to supply the mining towns in the north and export hides to Spain . Russia was successful in capturing some of the northern areas of the Empire (present-day Turkmenistan, for example) in the 19th century. The last Mayan state did not fall till 1697 . Spanish Conquest, Colonization, and Christianization During the early sixteenth century, Spanish military adventurers based in Cuba organized expeditions to the North American mainland. Defeats Aztecs Cholos, persons with one indio parent and one mestizo parent. They greatly impressed the Indians by walking from Vera Cruz to Mexico City barefoot in their simple friar  clothing .They were not seeking a Cibola and riches in gold. The crown had a monopoly on pulque, which was a major source of revenue .The Spanish discovered that by roasting the hearts of the agave plant and fermenting the liquid they could produce tequila . In 1561 French pirates sacked the town of Campeche In 1683 the French pirate Lorenzillo attacked Vera Cruz and took much loot and ..This curtailed trade since for a long time the galleons sailed in a protected convoy once a year .Industries that could compete with those of Spain were prohibited and was trade with other countries, so New Spain produced few manufactured goods for export .One example of this is the olive and wine industry, introduced by friars but eventually banned by Spain as competing with Spanish growers . By 1810, New Spain produced 75 percent of all the profit from Spain's colonies .Yet little was reinvested in New Spain . It was used with greater frequency in the 18th century to prosecute those involved in political  dissent . colonization affect New Mexico’s native population? Castillo de Chapultepec, built in 1785 as a viceroyal residence and site of the boy heroes of the Mexican war . Products for local consumption were permitted to be produced. 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